Acrocomia

Martius

Palm. Fam. 22. 1824, in C. F. P. von Martius et al., Hist. Nat. P

Common names: Coyol gru-gru
Etymology: Greek akron, summit, and kome, hairs of the head, in reference to the high crown of leaves akrokomos, with leaves at the top, said especially of palms
Synonyms: Acanthococos Barbosa Rodrigues
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 22. Treatment on page 122. Mentioned on page 123.
Stems solitary, robust, armed, covered with persistent leaf bases or bare. Leaves: petioles armed with needlelike prickles; petiole margins unarmed; blade pinnate, armed with prickles; plication reduplicate; segments regularly arranged, apices acute. Inflorescences axillary within crown of leaves, paniculate, arching, becoming pendulous in fruit, with 1 order of branching; prophyll short; peduncular bract woody, prickly, splitting abaxially, curling downward; rachis armed with prickles. Flowers unisexual, sessile, borne in triads of 1 pistillate flower flanked by 2 staminate flowers, staminate flowers borne singly along distal portions of rachillae. Staminate flowers: sepals 3, free; petals 3, valvate, leathery, basally connate, leathery; stamens 6, free; anthers rectangular; pistillode with 3 minute lobes. Pistillate flowers: sepals 3, imbricate, free; petals 3, imbricate, basally connate or nearly free; staminodes well -developed, bearing short, sterile anthers; pistils 1, large, tomentose; ovules 3; styles indistinct; stigmas 3. Fruits drupes, globose; exocarp brownish green, thin, pubescent near fruit apex [bristly]; mesocarp fleshy, oily; endocarp thick, bony, with 3 equatorial germination pores. Seeds irregular; endosperm homogeneous; embryo lateral; eophyll undivided [2-cleft], linear-lanceolate. nx = 15.

Distribution

Mexico, West Indies, Central America, and South America.

Discussion

Although as many as 30 species of Acrocomia have been described, a recent study (A. Henderson et al. 1995) recognized only two, A. aculeata (Jacquin) Loddiges (including A. totai Martius) and A. hassleri (Barbosa Rodrigues) W. J. Hahn. I maintain A. aculeata and A. totai as two separate species, both of which are cultivated in Florida, where the latter species is naturalized. A general comparison of these two species was made by B. Peterson (1991) in which he noted that the eophyll of A. aculeata is 2-cleft and that of A. totai is undivided. He also found several subtle differences between these species when mature. For example, the trunk spines of A. totai are ca. 12–13 cm and those of A. aculeata are ca. 6–10 cm. Clearly, additional study is warranted to resolve the prickly systematic problems in this genus.

Species 2–30 (1 in the flora).

Lower Taxa

Facts about "Acrocomia"
AuthorScott Zona +
AuthorityMartius +
Common nameCoyol + and gru-gru +
DistributionMexico +, West Indies +, Central America + and And South America. +
EtymologyGreek akron, summit, and kome, hairs of the head, in reference to the high crown of leaves + and akrokomos, with leaves at the top, said especially of palms +
Publication titlePalm. Fam. +
Publication year1837 +
Referencepeterson1991a + and peterson1991b +
Source xmlhttps://jpend@bitbucket.org/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation.git/src/8f726806613d60c220dc4493de13607dd3150896/coarse grained fna xml/V22/V22 618.xml +
SynonymsAcanthococos +
Taxon familyArecaceae +
Taxon nameAcrocomia +
Taxon parentArecaceae (tribe Cocoeae) subtribe Bactridinae +
Taxon rankgenus +
VolumeVolume 22 +