Anoda

Cavanilles

Diss. 1: 38, plate 10, fig. 3, plate 11, figs. 1, 2. 1785

Etymology: Ceylonese vernacular name for a species of Abutilon
Synonyms: Cavanillea Medikus Sidanoda (A. Gray) Wooton & Standley
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 6. Treatment on page 234. Mentioned on page 217.
Herbs or subshrubs, annual. Stems erect to decumbent, hispid or stellate-hairy to glabrescent. Leaves: stipules deciduous, inconspicuous, usually linear; blade usually linear, lanceolate, oblong, or ovate to triangular, sometimes lobed, base truncate, cordate, or cuneate, margins dentate to entire. Inflorescences axillary solitary flowers or terminal racemes or panicles; involucel absent. Flowers: calyx accrescent or not, not inflated, ribbed or not, base rounded, lobes ovate to triangular, apex acute or acuminate; corolla yellow, lavender, or purplish, rarely white; staminal column included; style 5–19-branched; stigmas usually abruptly capitate. Fruits schizocarps, erect, not inflated, oblate, not indurate, hairy; mericarps 5–19, 1-celled, with or without spur at dorsal angle, lateral walls usually disintegrating at maturity, irregularly dehiscent. Seeds 1 per mericarp, sometimes enclosed in persistent reticulate endocarp. x = 15.

Distribution

North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, Australia.

Discussion

Species 23 (7 in the flora).

Anoda is predominantly Mexican in both distribution and maximum diversity, the South American occurrences being predominantly of the weedy A. cristata.

Key

1 Petals usually lavender to purplish, rarely white > 2
1 Petals pale to bright yellow > 4
2 Plants frequently decumbent; petals 8–26(–30) mm, manifestly exceeding calyx, lavender or purplish, rarely white; adaxial leaf surface with appressed, simple hairs 1 mm; mericarps with dorsal spurs 1.5–4 mm. Anoda cristata
3 Mericarps 10 or 11, without dorsal spurs; endocarp present; midstem leaves with 3 narrowly linear lobes; staminal columns usually glabrous. Anoda reticulata
3 Mericarps 6–8, with evident, small, dorsal spurs; endocarp incompletely developed or absent; midstem leaves ovate to hastate to triangular; staminal columns hairy. Anoda thurberi
4 Leaf blade surfaces with simple, appressed hairs adaxially; petals bright yellow; fruits hirsute, mericarps 10–12, dorsally spurred. Anoda lanceolata
4 Leaf blade surfaces minutely tomentose; petals pale yellow, sometimes fading with reddish blush; fruits minutely or densely hairy, mericarps 5–13, dorsally rounded or spurred > 5
5 Mericarps 10–13, dorsal spur 1–2 mm; endocarp present; petals 6–8 mm, not fading reddish. Anoda crenatiflora
6 Calyces 5–7 mm; mericarps 5; fruits 6 mm diam.; leaf blades membranous, concolorous, broadly ovate, apex acuminate. Anoda abutiloides
6 Calyces 3–5 mm; mericarps 5–8; fruits 4–5 mm diam.; leaf blades coriaceous, discolorous, often narrowly oblong or linear, apex acute. Anoda pentaschista