Brickellia

Elliott

Sketch Bot. S. Carolina 2: 290. 1823

Etymology: For John Brickell, 1748–1809, Irish-born physician and naturalist who settled in Georgia (not John Brickell, 1710?–1745, Irish naturalist who visited North Carolina ca. 1729–1731 and published on the natural history of North Carolina in 1737)
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 21. Treatment on page 491. Mentioned on page 460, 507.
Annuals, perennials, subshrubs, or shrubs, (12–)30–120(–200) cm. Stems mostly erect, often much branched (sometimes virgate, often striate). Leaves cauline; opposite or alternate; petiolate or sessile; blades usually 3-nerved from bases, deltate, lance-elliptic, lance-linear, lanceolate, lance-ovate, lance-rhombic, linear, oblong, obovate, ovate, rhombic-ovate, spatulate, or suborbiculate, margins mostly crenate, dentate, entire, laciniate-dentate, lobed, serrate, or toothed, faces glabrous (sometimes shiny) or glandular-puberulent, strigose, or tomentose, sometimes gland-dotted. Heads usually in corymbiform, sometimes cymiform, paniculiform, or racemiform, arrays, rarely borne singly. Involucres cylindric to obconic or campanulate, 5–12 mm diam. Phyllaries persistent, (10–)14–45(–60) in 3–7(–9) series, usually (4–)5–6(–16)-striate or -nerved, linear or lanceolate to oblanceolate or oblong, usually unequal (usually chartaceous, sometimes herbaceous). Receptacles flat to convex, epaleate. Florets (3–)8–45(–90); corollas usually white or whitish to cream, sometimes greenish, purplish or yellowish, throats mostly cylindric to narrowly funnelform (lengths 3–5 times diams.); styles: bases enlarged, hairy, branches narrowly clavate (± dilated distally). Cypselae narrowly prismatic, 10-ribbed, glabrous or hairy to glabrate, often gland-dotted; pappi persistent, of 10–80 usually smooth or barbellulate to barbellate, sometimes plumose or subplumose bristles in 1 series. x = 9.

Distribution

North America, Mexico, Central America.

Discussion

Species ca. 100 (32 in the flora).

Key

1 Pappi usually of plumose or subplumose, sometimes barbellate, bristles > 2
1 Pappi usually of smooth or barbellulate to barbellate, sometimes subplumose, bristles > 4
2 Phyllaries puberulent, often densely gland-dotted as well Brickellia eupatorioides
2 Phyllaries glabrous or puberulent (not gland-dotted) > 3
3 Stems (at least distally) pubescent (lacking relatively long, gland-tipped hairs); florets9–12 Brickellia brachyphylla
3 Stems (at least distally) stipitate-glandular (hairs relatively long); florets 11–22 Brickellia hinckleyi
4 Florets (40–)45–90 > 5
4 Florets 3–30(–50) > 9
5 Stems and leaves densely white-tomentose Brickellia incana
5 Stems and leaves glabrous or glandular-puberulent, puberulent, pubescent, stipitate-glandular, strigose, villous, or viscid-glandular, often gland-dotted as well (not tomentose) > 6
6 Shrubs; leaf margins usually sharply dentate or dentate-serrate, rarely entire;outer phyllaries ovate, lance-ovate, or lance-linear Brickellia atractyloides
6 Perennials (caudices woody); leaf margins crenate, crenate-dentate, dentate, or serrate; outer phyllaries lance-ovate to narrowly lanceolate > 7
7 Peduncles 0–2 mm; involucres 14–18 mm; cypselae 5.5–7 mm Brickellia greenei
7 Peduncles 4–50 mm; involucres 7–14 mm; cypselae 4–5 mm > 8
8 Petioles 10–70 mm; peduncles 4–30 mm; involucres 7–12 mm; phyllaries 30–40; corollas 6.5–7.5 mm Brickellia grandiflora
8 Petioles 3–20 mm; peduncles 20–50 mm; involucres 12–14 mm; phyllaries 40–60; corollas 9–10 mm Brickellia simplex
9 Florets 3–7 > 10
9 Florets 8–30(–50) > 11
10 Leaf blades lance-elliptic, lance-ovate, lanceolate, lance-linear, or linear, margins entire or nearly so, faces gland-dotted (and shiny), often puberulent as well Brickellia longifolia
10 Leaf blades lance-ovate to lanceolate, margins dentate to serrate, faces gland-dotted and sparsely pubescent (not shiny) Brickellia knappiana
11 Petioles 4–70 mm > 12
11 Petioles 0–5 mm > 19
12 Leaf apices acuminate or long-acuminate to attenuate > 13
12 Leaf apices acute to obtuse or rounded > 16
13 Phyllaries, outer: apices obtuse to acute (cypselae 2–2.5 mm) Brickellia rusbyi
13 Phyllaries, outer: apices acute, acuminate, or mucronate > 14
14 Shrubs; leaf margins subentire or ± toothed (usually with 1–3 sets of sharp teeth near bases); phyllaries 17–22 Brickellia coulteri
14 Perennials; leaf margins crenate, dentate, or serrate; phyllaries 28–40 > 15
15 Heads (erect in fruit) in corymbiform or paniculiform arrays; corollas pale yellow-green, often purple-tinged, 6–7.2 mm; pappi of 38–46 purple-tinged bristles Brickellia cordifolia
15 Heads (nodding in flower and fruit) in loose, corymbiform or paniculiform arrays; corollas pale yellow-green; pappi of 20–30white bristles Brickellia grandiflora
16 Perennials; stems and peduncles stipitate-glandular > 17
16 Shrubs; stems and peduncles pubescent or glandular-pubescent > 18
17 Leaf bases rounded to cuneate; petioles 4–10 mm; phyllaries: outer ovate to lance-ovate or lanceolate (equaling or surpassing inner,glabrous or sparsely glandular-hirtellous) Brickellia chenopodina
17 Leaf bases truncate to cordate; petioles 20–35 mm; phyllaries: outerovate to lanceolate (shorter than inner, glandular-hirtellous) Brickellia floribunda
18 Leaves: bases cuneate, margins laciniate-dentate; peduncles 5–40 mm Brickellia baccharidea
18 Leaves: bases cordate to truncate, margins crenate to serrate; peduncles 1–5 mm Brickellia californica
19 Leaves opposite > 20
19 Leaves alternate > 28
20 Stems and leaves mostly puberulent to pubescent, sometimes gland-dotted (not glandular-pubescent or stipitate-glandular) > 21
20 Stems and leaves pubescent, puberulent, or tomentulose and gland-dotted, glandular-pubescent, or stipitate-glandular > 22
21 Perennials mostly 30–90 cm; leaf blades oblong, obovate, or ovate,(15–)30–80 × 10–35 mm Brickellia betonicifolia
21 Perennials 12–30 cm; leaf blades deltate-ovate to lanceolate, 7–30 × 4–28 mm Brickellia parvula
22 Shrubs; leaf blades mostly 3–15 mm; peduncles 0–3 mm > 23
22 Perennials; leaf blades (2–)15–160 mm; peduncles (1–)3–150 mm (if less than 3 mm, bracteate) > 24
23 Phyllaries 20–24; florets 8–12 Brickellia desertorum
23 Phyllaries 35–40; florets 18–33 Brickellia veronicifolia
24 Leaf blades oblong to linear, 2–10 mm wide, margins entire ordentate; peduncles (20–)30–150 mm Brickellia venosa
24 Leaf blades elliptic, lanceolate, oblong, obovate, ovate, or subdeltate, mostly 10–75 mm wide, margins crenate to serrate; peduncles 1–15(–25) mm > 25
25 Peduncles (bracteate) 1–8 mm; involucres 13–15 mm; phyllar-ies 34–40 Brickellia pringlei
25 Peduncles 2–15(–25) mm; involucres 8–13 mm; phyllaries 18–24 > 26
26 Leaf bases rounded to cordate (clasping); peduncles densely stipitate-glandular Brickellia amplexicaulis
26 Leaf bases ± cuneate; peduncles densely tomentose, often gland-dotted as well > 27
27 Phyllaries 18–22 in 5–7 series (lengths in outer 2–3series no more than 1/2 inner) Brickellia cylindracea
27 Phyllaries 18–20 in 3–4(–5) series (lengths in outer series grading to inner) Brickellia lemmonii
28 Leaf blades oblong or spatulate, 1–4 mm wide Brickellia frutescens
28 Leaf blades cordate, elliptic, lance-linear, lanceolate, lance-ovate, oblong, obovate, ovate, rhombic-ovate, subdeltate, or suborbiculate, (3–)10–100 mm wide > 29
29 Florets 25–50; leaf blades elliptic, oblong, or lance-linear, margins entire Brickellia oblongifolia
29 Florets 8–25(–45); leaf blades cordate, lanceolate, lance-ovate, oblong, obovate, ovate, rhombic-ovate, or suborbiculate, margins entire or dentate > 30
30 Leaf blades elliptic, lanceolate, lance-ovate, obovate, ovate, or subdeltate > 31
30 Leaf blades mostly cordate or ovate to suborbiculate (if oblong, peduncles viscid or glandular-villous) > 33
31 Shrubs; cypselae usually glabrous, rarely sparsely pubescent Brickellia dentata
31 Perennials; cypselae sparsely to densely pubescent > 32
32 Phyllaries 18–22 in 5–7 series (lengths of outers to 1/2 inners) Brickellia cylindracea
32 Phyllaries 18–20 in 3–4(–5) series (lengths of outers evenly grading to inners) Brickellia lemmonii
33 Stems and leaves tomentose or densely puberulent, often gland-dotted as well > 34
33 Stems and leaves sparsely pubescent to hispidulous, often gland-dotted or glandular-villous as well > 35
34 Involucres 8–10 mm; phyllaries 20–24; florets 8–12 Brickellia desertorum
34 Involucres mostly 10–12 mm; phyllaries 30–38; florets 20–24 Brickellia nevinii
35 Peduncles 0.5–2.5 mm, glandular-viscid; phyllaries 15–25 Brickellia laciniata
35 Peduncles (bracteate) 2–10 mm, viscid to glandular-villous; phyllaries 30–48 Brickellia microphylla
Facts about "Brickellia"
AuthorRandall W. Scott +
AuthorityElliott +
DistributionNorth America +, Mexico + and Central America. +
EtymologyFor John Brickell, 1748–1809, Irish-born physician and naturalist who settled in Georgia (not John Brickell, 1710?–1745, Irish naturalist who visited North Carolina ca. 1729–1731 and published on the natural history of North Carolina in 1737) +
IllustratorLinny Heagy +
Publication titleSketch Bot. S. Carolina +
Publication year1823 +
Referencerobinson1917a +
Source xmlhttps://jpend@bitbucket.org/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation.git/src/9216fc802291cd3df363fd52122300479582ede7/coarse grained fna xml/V19-20-21/V21 1237.xml +
SynonymsCompositae +
Taxon familyAsteraceae +
Taxon nameBrickellia +
Taxon parentAsteraceae tribe Eupatorieae +
Taxon rankgenus +
VolumeVolume 21 +