Calymperes

Swartz in F. Weber

in F. Weber, Tab. Calyptr. Operc., 3. 1814 ,.

Etymology: Greek kalymma, covering, and peiro, pierce, alluding to fissured calyptra
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 27. Treatment on page 659. Mentioned on page 654, 655, 662.

Plants small to medium-sized, mostly tufted, green to yellowish brown, rarely with pink to purple tinge. Stems erect. Leaves often dimorphic with vegetative leaves mostly grading into gemmiferous leaves, teniolate or teniolae absent; margins of distal lamina without elongate hyaline cells, mostly thickened and toothed, rarely 1-stratose and entire; costa mostly showing two bands of stereid cells or stereids rarely absent; medial cells of leaves isodiametric [rarely transversely elongate]. Specialized asexual reproduction common, by fusiform-clavate gemmae borne on apices of often modified leaves. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta single. Capsule mostly well-exserted, sometimes more or less immersed, cylindric; peristome absent. Calyptra persistent, enclosing the capsule, with vertical slits distally, spirally plicate when dry.

Distribution

Worldwide except Antarctica, mostly tropical and subtropical regions.

Discussion

Species ca. 40 (5 in the flora).

Calymperes is easy to recognize when fruiting because of its unique, persistent calyptra; none of our species, however, bears sporophytes in the flora area. The apex of the calyptra grips the operculum by its rostrum and under dry conditions lifts the operculum away from the mouth of the capsule, allowing the spores to escape through the gaping fissures in the calyptra. When the sporophyte is wet, the mouth of the capsule is sealed by the operculum, and the fissures in the calyptra are closed. Sterile specimens of teniolate species of Calymperes are easy to recognize because of their characteristic teniolae. Our only nonteniolate CalymperesC. tenerum—is usually easily recognizable by the excurrent costa of the gemmiferous leaves bearing gemmae all around. Fertile specimens of Calymperes are not known from the flora area.

Key

1 Leaves without teniolae. Calymperes tenerum
1 Leaves with teniolae > 2
2 Distal cells of cancellinae prominently mammillose adaxially > 3
2 Distal cells of cancellinae plane > 4
3 Gemmae borne all around excurrent tip of costa; costa in cross section showing well-defined abaxial and adaxial bands of stereid cells. Calymperes erosum
3 Gemmae only adaxial on tip of costa; costa in cross section absent well-defined bands of steroids Calymperes pallidum
4 Cancellinae forming acute angles with costa distally; teniolae usually 4 or more cells in from margin at shoulders. Calymperes afzelii
4 Cancellinae forming very broad angles with costa distally; teniolae 2-3 cells in from margin at leaf shoulders. Calymperes palisotii
... more about "Calymperes"
William D. Reese† +
Swartz in F. Weber +
Worldwide except Antarctica +  and mostly tropical and subtropical regions. +
Greek kalymma, covering, and peiro, pierce, alluding to fissured calyptra +
in F. Weber, Tab. Calyptr. Operc., +
reese1987a +
Calymperes +
Calymperaceae +