Sp. Pl. 2: 998. 175
Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 432. 1754
Mostly north temperate zone, Europe, Asia (s to India, Iran).
Species ca. 25 (1 in the flora).
In the flora, Carpinus consists of a single native species, C. caroliniana, which is composed of two fairly distinctive geographic races (J. J. Furlow 1987, 1987b), treated here as subspecies. Worldwide it includes about 25 species, some of which become large trees. The European C. betulus is frequently planted in North America and persists long after other signs of human development have vanished. It seldom escapes, however, and it has not become naturalized. In the mountains of Mexico and Central America, the larger C. tropicalis (Donnell Smith) Lundell is widespread in the temperate forest zone.
Closely related to Ostrya, Carpinus is easily recognized by its smooth, gray, often fluted stems and racemose infructescences consisting of pairs of uncrowded, foliaceous, 3-lobed bracts, each subtending a small triangular nutlet. The staminate (but not the pistillate) catkins develop in the autumn and are enclosed within buds throughout the winter prior to anthesis (in Ostrya, these are exposed during the winter). The pistillate catkins are produced on the first new growth in the spring.
Of relatively minor economic importance, Carpinus has limited use for its very hard wood, especially in Europe, where it is used for making mallet heads, tool handles, levers, and other small, hard, wooden objects.
|Author||John J. Furlow +|
|Common name||Hornbeam +|
|Distribution||Mostly north temperate zone +, Europe +, Asia (s to India + and Iran). +|
|Etymology||Latin carpinus, hornbeam, possibly from carpentum, a Roman horse-drawn vehicle with wheels made from its hard wood +|
|Illustration copyright||Flora of North America Association +|
|Illustrator||John Myers +|
|Publication title||Sp. Pl. + and Gen. Pl. ed. +|
|Publication year||1754 +|
|Reference||furlow1987a +, furlow1987b +, winkler1914a + and winstead1977a +|
|Source xml||https://email@example.com/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation.git/src/f50eec43f223ca0e34566be0b046453a0960e173/coarse grained fna xml/V3/V3 67.xml +|
|Taxon family||Betulaceae +|
|Taxon name||Carpinus +|
|Taxon parent||Betulaceae subfam. Coryloideae +|
|Taxon rank||genus +|
|Volume||Volume 3 +|