Carthamus

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 830. 1753

,

Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 361. 1754

Common names: Distaff thistle
Etymology: Arabic qartam, safflower
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 19. Treatment on page 178. Mentioned on page 52, 67, 83.
Annuals or perennials, 30–180 cm, herbage glabrous to ± glandular and/or ± tomentose. Stems usually erect, branched distally or throughout, (leafy). Leaves basal and cauline or all cauline; basal and proximal cauline winged-petiolate, distal cauline sessile, sometimes clasping; blade margins dentate to pinnately lobed, ± spiny, faces glabrous or ± glandlar and/or ± tomentose. Heads discoid, borne singly or in few-headed cymiform arrays. Involucres ovoid, constricted distally. Phyllaries many in 4–5 series, linear to ovate (at least outer ± leaflike), bases appressed, apical appendages more herbaceous, prominently veiny, spiny-dentate or -lobed, spine-tipped. Receptacles convex to conic, epaleate, bearing subulate scales. Florets 15–60+; corollas yellow to red or ± purple, tubes very slender, throats gradually or abruptly expanded, ± cylindric or short-campanulate, lobes linear; anther bases short-tailed, apical appendages oblong; style branches: fused portions with slightly swollen basal nodes minutely hairy, distally minutely papillate, distinct portions very short. Cypselae oblong to obpyramidal, ± 4-angled, apices with smooth or dentate rims, faces usually ± roughened (outer) or smooth (inner), glabrous, attachment scars lateral; pappi 0 or (usually only inner cypselae) ± persistent, of many, usually unequal, narrow scales overlapping in several series. x = 10, 12.

Distribution

United States, Mediterranean region.

Discussion

Species 14 (4 in the flora).

Key

1 Corollas pink or pale purple; cauline leaves ± deeply lobed Carthamus leucocaulos
1 Corollas yellow to red; cauline leaves toothed to deeply lobed > 2
2 Cauline leaves toothed, otherwise undivided, weakly spiny; corollas yellow to red; cypselae white Carthamus tinctorius
2 Cauline leaves ± divided, very spiny; corollas yellow; cypselae brown > 3
3 Anthers yellow, pollen yellow; corollas bright yellow; outer phyllaries usually not more than 1.5 times as long as inner; herbage ± cobwebby; stems stramineous. Carthamus lanatus
3 Anthers white with purple lines, pollen white; corollas pale yellow; outer phyllaries usually 2 times as long as inner; herbage ± sparsely hairy; stems white or stramineous Carthamus creticus
Facts about "Carthamus"
AuthorDavid J. Keil +
AuthorityLinnaeus +
BasionymsAsteraceae tribe Cynareae +
Common nameDistaff thistle +
DistributionUnited States + and Mediterranean region. +
EtymologyArabic qartam, safflower +
Illustration copyrightFlora of North America Association +
IllustratorJohn Myers +
Introducedtrue +
Publication titleSp. Pl. + and Gen. Pl. ed. +
Publication year1753 + and 1754 +
Referenceashri1959a +, ashri1960a +, hanelt1963a +, hanelt1976a +, khidir1970a + and khidir1970b +
Source xmlhttps://jpend@bitbucket.org/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation.git/src/f50eec43f223ca0e34566be0b046453a0960e173/coarse grained fna xml/V19-20-21/V19 200.xml +
SynonymsCompositae +
Taxon familyAsteraceae +
Taxon nameCarthamus +
Taxon parentAsteraceae tribe Cardueae +
Taxon rankgenus +
VolumeVolume 19 +