Flacourtia indica

(Burman f.) Merrill

Interpr. Herb. Amboin., 377. 1917.

Common names: Governor’s or Indian or Madagascar plum
Basionym: Gmelina indica Burman f. Fl. Indica, 132, plate 39, fig. 5. 1768
Synonyms: Flacourtia ramontchi L’Héretier
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 7. Treatment on page 163.

Trees or shrubs, 3–5(–10) m. Leaves: petiole 1–2 cm; blade red to pink when immature, ovate to orbiculate, 8–12 cm, becoming coriaceous, margins glandular-serrate or -crenate, surfaces glabrous or sparsely to densely pubescent. Peduncles 5–10 mm. Pedicels 5–10 mm. Flowers: bisexual ones sometimes on some branches of otherwise pistillate plants; sepals (persistent) slightly connate, greenish, ovate-orbiculate, 1.5–2.5 mm, apex acute to rounded, surfaces pubescent; filaments pubescent at base; ovary ovoid; styles spreading. Drupes reddish to purple or red-black at maturity, globose or ellipsoid, 1.8–2.5 cm. Seeds ca. 4–10, obovoid, 8–10 mm; testa crustaceous, rugose. 2n = 22 (India, cult. Cuba), 44 (Africa).

Phenology: Flowering and fruiting year-round.
Habitat: Roadsides, grassy areas, hammock edges
Elevation: 0-10 m


V7 194-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; Fla., s Asia (India), Africa, introduced also in tropical and subtropical regions elsewhere.


Flacourtia indica has been cultivated in southern Florida for a century or more and has become naturalized there in Broward, Collier, Lee, Miami-Dade, and Monroe counties, the fruits being dispersed by birds (W. S. Judd 1997b). Throughout its wide range, it is highly variable in thorniness, pubescence, and leaf shape; various combinations of extremes have been described as separate species, although the morphological variation seems to be continuous and does not correlate with geography (Judd). Trying to recognize those segregate taxa among the plants introduced in North America seems futile.

Selected References


Lower Taxa

... more about "Flacourtia indica"
Robert W. Kiger +
(Burman f.) Merrill +
Gmelina indica +
Governor’s or Indian or Madagascar plum +
Fla. +, s Asia (India) +, Africa +  and introduced also in tropical and subtropical regions elsewhere. +
0-10 m +
Roadsides, grassy areas, hammock edges +
Flowering and fruiting year-round. +
Interpr. Herb. Amboin., +
Introduced +  and Illustrated +
Flacourtia ramontchi +
Flacourtia indica +
Flacourtia +
species +