Mamm.-vergl.-Schlüssel, 36. 1933.
Plants usually unbranched. Roots: upper portion of primary root somewhat thickened and succulent proximally, otherwise fibrous. Stems flat-topped or spheric to short cylindric, ± flaccid; tubercles (5–)6–15(–17) mm; axils appearing naked; cortex and pith mucilaginous; latex absent. Spines 19–31(–34) per areole, usually white or brown-and-white (rarely bright reddish brown), glabrous (to hoary); radial spines (13–)15–23(–31) per areole, in 1 series, bristlelike, stiff; central spines 1–2(–4) per areole, porrect or strongly projecting, all hooked, (7.5–)10–20(–31) × 0.2–0.4 mm; subcentral spines 0 [several in M. barbata]. Flowers (1.5–)2–3.5(–3.9) × (1.2–)1.8–3(–4.2) cm; outermost tepal margins long fringed, reaching 1 mm; inner tepals usually white, cream, pale tan, greenish white, or pale rose-pink, sometimes appearing pale orange proximally due to reflection of yellow anthers, usually with ± sharply defined pink midstripes (often suffused with brown, yellow, pink, red, purple, or green, darkest and brightest distally on most plants), (7.5–)12–17(–21) mm; stigma lobes green or yellow-green. Fruits green or purple, ovoid or obovoid, (6–)10–16(–22) × (4–)6–12(–13) mm, juicy throughout; floral remnant persistent. Seeds chocolate brown with darker reticulation, 1.3 × 0.9 mm, pitted; testa hard; anticlinal cell walls straight; interstices conspicuously narrower than pit diameters; pits bowl-shaped. 2n = 22.
Phenology: Flowering spring; fruiting fall.
Habitat: Semidesert grasslands, interior chaparral, pinyon-juniper and oak woodlands, crevices, boulders, canyon sides and gravelly igneous substrates
Elevation: (800-)1400-2000 m
Mammillaria viridiflora is closely related to M. barbata Engelmann of Mexico, which has priority if the species are combined.