Manfreda virginica

(Linnaeus) Salisbury ex Rose

Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 8: 19. 1903

Common names: Virginian agave rattlesnake master false aloe
Basionyms: Agave virginica Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 1: 323. 1753
Synonyms: Agave lata Shinners Agave tigrina (Engelmann) Cory Agave virginica var. tigrina Engelmann Manfreda tigrina (Shinners) Shinners Manfreda virginica subsp. lata (Shinners) O’Kennon, Diggs & Lipscomb Manfreda virginica var. tigrina (Engelmann) Rose Polianthes lata Polianthes virginica
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 26. Treatment on page 463. Mentioned on page 462.
Rhizomes cylindrical. Leaves spreading, semisucculent, 8–40(–47) × 0.5–6.5(–9.3) cm; blade usually spotted or speckled with maroon, shallowly channeled, oblanceolate to linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with cartilaginous prickles. Scape 4.5  13.8 dm. Inflorescences 14–68 cm, bearing 10–61 closely spaced flowers. Flowers sessile or pedicellate, nearly erect, slender, with sweet, fruity odor; tepals green; perianth tube 0.9–2.3 × 0.3–0.6 cm; limb lobes erect, 0.4–0.8 cm; filaments inserted near base of tube, bent in bud, exceeding tube by 1.2–3.1 cm; ovary 4–10 mm; style shorter than stamens, exceeding tube by 0.6–2.3 cm; stigma white, 3-lobed, lobes reflexed. Capsules globose, 1–1.7 cm diam. 2n = 60.

Phenology: Flowering summer–late summer, rarely in spring; fruiting late summer–early fall.
Habitat: Glades and open woods, on rocky and sandy soils, often on slopes
Elevation: 0–600 m


V26 970-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., La., Miss., Mo., N.C., Ohio, Okla., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va., Mexico (Nuevo León, Tamaulipas).


Leaf shape and size in Manfreda virginica vary with soil type, amount of shade, length of cold period, and position of leaf in the rosette. Speckles and spots occur frequently on some leaves in most populations, and some authors have used the informal designation “forma tigrina” for such variants. Pollination is primarily by sphinx moths (S. E. Verhoek 1978).

Selected References


Lower Taxa


Facts about "Manfreda virginica"
AuthorSusan Verhoek +
Authority(Linnaeus) Salisbury ex Rose +
BasionymsAgave virginica +
Common nameVirginian agave +, rattlesnake master + and false aloe +
DistributionAla. +, Ark. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Ky. +, La. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, Mexico (Nuevo León + and Tamaulipas). +
Elevation0–600 m +
HabitatGlades and open woods, on rocky and sandy soils, often on slopes +
IllustrationPresent +
Illustration copyrightFlora of North America Association +
IllustratorBee F. Gunn +
PhenologyFlowering summer–late summer, rarely in spring + and fruiting late summer–early fall. +
Publication titleContr. U.S. Natl. Herb. +
Publication year1903 +
ReferenceNone +
Source xml grained fna xml/V26/V26 970.xml +
SynonymsAgave lata +, Agave tigrina +, Agave virginica var. tigrina +, Manfreda tigrina +, Manfreda virginica subsp. lata +, Manfreda virginica var. tigrina +, Polianthes lata + and Polianthes virginica +
Taxon familyAgavaceae +
Taxon nameManfreda virginica +
Taxon parentManfreda +
Taxon rankspecies +
VolumeVolume 26 +