Poaceae subfam. Arundinoideae
Plants usually perennial; cespitose or not, sometimes rhizomatous, sometimes stoloniferous. Culms 15-1000 cm, annual, herbaceous to somewhat woody, internodes usually hollow. Leaves usually mostly cauline, often conspicuously distichous; sheaths usually open; auricles usually absent; abaxial ligules usually absent (of hairs in Hakonechloa); adaxial ligules membranous or of hairs, if membranous, often ciliate; blades without pseudopetioles, sometimes deciduous at maturity; mesophyll usually non-radiate (radiate in Amnio); adaxial palisade layer absent; fusoid cells absent; arm cells usually absent (present in Phragmites); Kranz anatomy absent; midribs simple; adaxial bulliform cells present; stomatal subsidiary cells low dome-shaped or triangular; bicellular microhairs usually present, usually with long, narrow terminal cells; papillae usually absent. Inflorescences usually terminal, ebracteate, usually paniculate, occasionally spicate or racemose. Spikelets laterally compressed, with 1-several bisexual florets or all florets unisexual and the species dioecious; florets 1-several, terete or laterally compressed, distal florets often reduced; disarticulation above the glumes. Glumes 2, from shorter than the adjacent lemmas to exceeding the distal florets; lemmas (3)5-7-veined, lanceolate to elliptic, acute to acuminate, sometimes awned; awns 1 or 3, if 3 not fused into a single basal column; paleas subequal to the lemmas; lodicules 2, usually free, occasionally joined at the base, fleshy, usually glabrous, not, scarcely, or heavily vascularized; anthers (1)2-3; ovaries glabrous; styles 2, usually free, bases close together. Caryopses usually punctate (long-linear in Molinia); endosperm hard, without lipid; starch grains compound; haustorial synergids absent; embryos usually large compared to the caryopses, waisted or not; epiblasts absent; scutellar cleft present; mesocotyl internode elongate; embryonic leaf margins usually meeting (overlapping in Hakonechloa). x = 6,9, 10, 12.
The Arundinoideae are interpreted here as including only one tribe, the Arundineae. The tribe used to be interpreted more broadly (e.g., Watson et al. 1985; Clayton and Renvoize 1986; Kellogg and Campbell 1987), but the broader interpretation was generally acknowledged to be somewhat artificial. Hsiao et al. (1998) showed support for inclusion of the Danthonieae, Aristideae, and Amndineae in a more broadly interpreted Arundinoideae, but other studies (e.g., Hilu et al. 1990; Barker et al. 1995, 1998; Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001) have failed to support such a treatment.
Barker, N.P., H.P. Linder, and E.H. Harley. 1995. Polyphyly of Arundinoideae (Poaceae): Evidence from rbcL sequence data. Syst. Bot. 20:423-435
Barker, N.P., H.P. Linder, and E.H. Harley. 1998. Sequences of the grass-specific insert in the chloroplast rpoC2 gene elucidate generic relationships of the Arundinoideae (Poaceae). Syst. Bot. 23:327-350
Clark, L.G., W. Zhang, and J.F. Wendel. 1995. A phylogeny of the grass family (Poaceae) based on ndhV sequence data. Syst. Bot. 20:436-460
Clayton, W.D. and S.A. Renvoize. 1986. Genera Graminum: Grasses of the World. Kew Bull, Addit. Ser. 13. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, England. 389 pp.
Conert, H.J. 1987. Current concepts in the systematics of the Arundinoideae. Pp. 239-250 in T.R. Soderstrom, K.W Hilu, C.S. Campbell, and M.E. Barkworth (eds.). Grass Systematics and Evolution. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 473 pp.
Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2000. A phylogeny of the grass family (Poaceae), as inferred from eight character sets. Pp. 3-7 in S.W.L. Jacobs and J. Everett (eds.). Grasses: Systematics and Evolution. International Symposium on Grass Systematics and Evolution (3rd:1998). CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia. 408 pp.
Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88:373-457
Hilu, K.W. and A. Esen. 1990. Prolamin and immunological studies in the Poaceae. I. Subfamily Arundinoideae. PI. Syst. Evol. 173:57-70
Hsaio,'c, S.W.L. Jacobs, N.P. Barker, and N.J. Chatterton. 1998. A molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Arundinoideae (Poaceae) based on sequences of rDNA (ITS). Austral. Syst. Bot. 11:41-52
Kellogg, E.A. and C.S. Campbell. 1987. Phylogenetic analyses of the Gramineae. Pp. 310-322 in T.R. Soderstrom, K.W. Hilu, C.S. Campbell and M.E. Barkworth (eds.) Grass Systematics and Evolution. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 473 pp.
Linder, H.P., G.A. Verboom, and N.P. Barker. 1997. Phylogeny and evolution in the Crinipes group of grasses (Arundinoideae: Poaceae). Kew Bull. 52:91-110
Watson, L., H.T. Clifford, and M.J. Dallwitz. 1985. The classification of the Poaceae: Subfamilies and supertribes. Austral. J. Bot. 33:433-484