Tent. Pterid. 83. 1836
Illustrator: John Myers
Habitat: Terrestrial, forest floor, only occasionally on rock, in mesic coniferous to moist, mixed evergreen forests
Elevation: 0–2200 m
B.C., Calif., Idaho, Mont., Oreg., S.Dak., Wash., Mexico on Guadalupe Island, naturalized in Europe.
One of the most abundant ferns in the western flora (rivaled only by Pteridium), Polystichum munitum also is of significant economic importance. Enormous quantities of leaves are gathered for backgrounds in funeral wreaths and other floral displays; the evergreen leaves keep well in cold storage and are exported to Europe. It is extensively used in landscaping, the trade being mainly in wild-collected plants.
Polystichum munitum appears to be most closely related to P. imbricans based on morphologic (D. H. Wagner 1979) and electrophoretic (P. S. Soltis et al. 1990) analyses. The chloroplast DNA of P. imbricans, however, is divergent (G. Yatskievych et al. 1988), suggesting a chloroplast origin independent of the nuclear genome. That Polystichum munitum is related to P. acrostichoides is supported by data from chloroplast DNA analysis (G. Yatskievych et al. 1988) but contradicted by data from electrophoretic studies (P. S. Soltis et al. 1990).
Polystichum munitum can be distinguished from P. imbricans by its persistent, wide (the largest wider than 1 mm) distal petiolar scales; such scales of P. imbricans are less than 1 mm wide and fall off early.
From an evolutionary standpoint, Polystichum munitum is a diploid progenitor of P. andersonii, P. californicum, P. setigerum, and, perhaps, P. scopulinum. Hybrids with all except P. setigerum have been reported, all triploid, attesting to its parental role in the tetraploids (see discussion under each). Hybrids with P. braunii (A. Sleep and T. Reichstein 1967), P. kruckebergii (P. S. Soltis et al. 1987), P. dudleyi (W. H. Wagner Jr. 1973), and P. lemmonii (P. S. Soltis et al. 1989) also have been reported.
The population on Guadalupe Island has been called Polystichum solitarium Maxon.
|Author||David H. Wagner +|
|Authority||(Kaulfuss) C. Presl +|
|Basionyms||Aspidium munitum +|
|Common name||Common sword fern +|
|Distribution||B.C. +, Calif. +, Idaho +, Mont. +, Oreg. +, S.Dak. +, Wash. +, Mexico on Guadalupe Island + and Naturalized in Europe. +|
|Elevation||0–2200 m +|
|Habitat||Terrestrial, forest floor, only occasionally on rock, in mesic coniferous to moist, mixed evergreen forests +|
|Illustrator||John Myers +|
|Publication title||Tent. Pterid. +|
|Publication year||1836 +|
|Source xml||https://email@example.com/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation.git/src/f6b125a955440c0872999024f038d74684f65921/coarse grained fna xml/V2/V2 179.xml +|
|Taxon family||Dryopteridaceae +|
|Taxon name||Polystichum munitum +|
|Taxon parent||Polystichum +|
|Taxon rank||species +|
|Volume||Volume 2 +|