Phytologia 85: 20. 1999.
Perennials, 20–60 cm (taproots often relatively massive; caudices unbranched or multibranched). Stems erect, seldom branched (usually white in age). Leaves mostly cauline (proximal scalelike); mostly alternate, sometimes opposite; sessile or nearly so; blades (mid and distal, usually 1 or ± 3-nerved, laterals weaker than midribs) narrowly oblong to linear, bases ± cuneate, margins entire, faces hispid to scabrous, glabrescent (then usually roughened by persistent hair bases). Heads radiate, borne singly (peduncles sometimes bracteate). Involucres hemispheric to turbinate, (13–)20–30(–40) mm diam. Phyllaries persistent, 30–45+ in 3–4+ series (subequal to unequal, outer often surpassing inner). Receptacles flat to convex, paleate (paleae conduplicate, papery). Ray florets (8–)10–18(–21), pistillate, fertile; corollas yellow. Disc florets 40–120+, bisexual, fertile; corollas yellow, tubes much shorter than cylindric throats, lobes 5, ± deltate (style branches stigmatic in 2 barely distinct lines, appendages filiform). Cypselae ± prismatic, (3–)4-angled (faces glabrous, smooth or finely honeycombed); pappi persistent, coroniform, ± lacerate. x = 19.
w United States.