Phytologia 77: 294. 1995
Perennials, 20–100 cm, colonial or cespitose, eglandular, sometimes sparsely, minutely stipitate-glandular; long-rhizomatous, with erect, thick, ± cormoid, woody caudices. Stems 1–5+, erect to scandent-sprawling (mid to dark brown, branched from middle), glabrous or very sparsely fine strigose. Leaves (bright green) thick, firm, ± succulent, margins entire; basal early deciduous, sessile, blades (3-nerved) oblanceolate to obovate, 10–43 × 7–15 mm, bases cuneate, margins scabrous, apices obtuse, mucronate, faces sparsely finely scabrous; proximal cauline sessile (patent to reflexed), blades ovate to lanceolate, 8–30 × 2–10 mm, bases cordate-clasping, apices acute, sometimes spinulose, faces finely scabrous, shiny; distal sessile, blades lanceolate to triangular, 5–15 × 2.5–3.5 mm, reduced to bracts distally, bases clasping, margins finely scabrous, apices acute, white-spinulose, faces finely scabrous. Heads borne singly in diffusely paniculiform arrays, branches initially patent to divaricate, elongate. Peduncles glabrous, bracts relatively numerous, tiny, foliaceous, becoming minute, linear, glabrous. Involucres campanulate, 5–7 mm. Phyllaries in 4–5 series, oblanceolate, strongly unequal, bases (tan) ± indurate, margins hyaline, finely scabrous, green zones diamond-shaped, in distal 1/4–1/2, apices obtuse, mucronate to finely subspinulose, innermost acuminate, faces sparsely strigillose (often obscured by thick, shiny cuticle). Ray florets 11–26; corollas bluish purple, laminae 5–9(–11) × 0.5–1 mm. Disc florets (6–)15–25(–30); corollas yellow, 4–6.5 mm, throats narrowly funnelform, lobes triangular, 0.4–0.8 mm. Cypselae tan to brown, obovoid, not compressed, 2–2.5 mm, nerves very faint, faces sparsely to moderately strigose; pappi tan, 4–6 mm. 2n = 20.
Phenology: Flowering Oct–Dec.
Habitat: Sandy, clayey soils, margins of woods, open oak-pine scrub, pine flatwoods, fields, roadsides
Elevation: 0–100+ m
Fla., Ga., N.C., S.C.