Viola douglasii


Nomencl. Bot. ed. 2, 2. 771. 1841.

Common names: Douglas’s or Douglas’s golden violet
Basionym: Viola chrysantha Hooker Icon. Pl. 1: plate 49. 1836,
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 6. Treatment on page 129. Mentioned on page 111, 112, 116, 153.

Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–20 cm. Stems 1–3, decumbent or ascending to erect, ca. 1/2 subterranean, glabrous or puberulent, from single, short, vertical, deep-seated caudex. Leaves basal and cauline; basal: 1–6, bipinnately compound, leaflets 3–5; stipules adnate to petiole forming 2 linear-lanceolate wings, unlobed, margins entire, apex of each wing free, acute to acuminate; petiole 5–6.8 cm, glabrous or puberulent; blade ovate, 3.5–5 × 2.4–3.5 cm, base tapered, leaflets 3–5-lobed, lobes linear, narrowly elliptic, or oblong, 1–2.5(–5) mm wide, margins entire, usually densely ciliate, apex acute to obtuse, mucronulate, surfaces glabrous or puberulent; cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to linear-lanceolate, margins entire or toothed, apex acute; petiole 0.9–4 cm; blade 1.1–4.1 × 1–3.6 cm. Peduncles 2–12.5 cm, glabrous or puberulent. Flowers: sepals lanceolate, margins ciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm; petals light golden yellow adaxially, upper 2 dark brown to ± black abaxially, lower 3 dark brown-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest 8–21 mm, spur dark greenish to dark brown, gibbous, 1.5–2 mm; style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers absent. Capsules spherical to oblong, 5–12 mm, glabrous. Seeds light brown, 2.8–3.3 mm. 2n = 24, 48.

Phenology: Flowering Feb–Jul.
Habitat: Vernally moist grassy slopes and flats, often serpentine soil (except Oregon)
Elevation: 20–2300 m


V6 215-distribution-map.jpg

Calif., Oreg., Mexico (Baja California).


Viola douglasii is tetraploid (n = 12) south of, and octoploid (n = 24) north of, San Francisco Bay, California. It forms sterile hybrids with V. quercetorum (J. Clausen 1964). V. B. Baird (1936) described V. douglasii × purpurea, which Clausen later said was actually V. quercetorum, not described at the time of Baird’s publication.

Selected References


Lower Taxa

... more about "Viola douglasii"
R. John Little +  and Landon E. McKinney† +
Steudel +
Viola chrysantha +
Douglas’s or Douglas’s golden violet +
Calif. +, Oreg. +  and Mexico (Baja California). +
20–2300 m +
Vernally moist grassy slopes and flats, often serpentine soil (except Oregon) +
Flowering Feb–Jul. +
Nomencl. Bot. ed. +
Illustrated +
Chrysion +, Crocion +  and Lophion +
Viola douglasii +
species +