Arnoglossum

Rafinesque

Fl. Ludov.,64. 1817

Common names: Indian plantain
Etymology: Greek arnos, lamb, and glossum, tongue ancient name for some species of Plantago
Synonyms: Conophora Mesadenia
Found in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 622. Mentioned on page 542.
Perennials, 30–300 cm. Stems usually 1, erect (unbranched proximal to heads). Leaves basal and cauline; alternate; petiolate or sessile; blades palmately nerved, mostly cordate, deltate, elliptic, hastate, ovate, or reniform, sometimes lanceolate or lance-linear, margins entire, ± dentate to denticulate, sinuate, or lobed, faces usually glabrous. Heads discoid, in corymbiform arrays. Calyculi 0. Involucres cylindric to turbinate, 2.5–5 mm diam. Phyllaries persistent, 5 in 1–2 series, erect (spreading in fruit), distinct, ovate or oblong to linear (midveins sometimes winged), ± equal, margins scarious (hyaline). Receptacles flat or convex (usually with central cusp 0.5–2 mm), foveolate, epaleate. Ray florets 0. Disc florets 5, bisexual, fertile; corollas usually creamy or greenish white, rarely purplish distally, tubes longer than to equaling campanulate to funnelform throats, lobes 5, spreading or recurved, lanceolate; style branches: stigmatic areas continuous, apices truncate or truncate-penicillate (appendages essentially 0). Cypselae clavate, cylindric, ellipsoid, or ± fusiform, (4–)10–15-ribbed or -nerved, glabrous (resinous); pappi persistent, fragile, or readily falling, of 100–120+, white, smooth or barbellate bristles. x = 28.

Distribution

e North America.

Discussion

Species 8 (8 in the flora).

The name Cacalia Linnaeus has been misapplied to Arnoglossum.

Key

1 Phyllary midveins not winged (leaves ± membranous) > 2
1 Phyllary midveins winged (leaves firm) > 4
2 Basal leaves (and proximal cauline): blades ovate to narrowly lanceolate or lance-linear, margins usually entire Arnoglossum ovatum
2 Basal leaves (and proximal cauline): blades ovate, ovate-cordate, or reniform, margins lobed or dentate > 3
3 Stems smooth to weakly striate (stems and abaxial leaf faces glaucous) Arnoglossum atriplicifolium
3 Stems ridged to angulate (stems and abaxial leaf faces not glaucous) Arnoglossum reniforme
4 Basal leaves: blades ovate to cordate-ovate (bases truncate), margins denticulate; proximal cauline leaves deltate-hastate, margins dentate Arnoglossum diversifolium
4 Basal leaves: blades elliptic, ovate, ovate-oblong, or lance-oblong, margins crenate, crenulate, denticulate, entire, serrulate-denticulate, or sinuate; proximal cauline leaves ovate or elliptic, margins crenulate, denticulate, entire, serrate, or sinuate > 5
5 Phyllary wings (erose) highest at bases (lateral veins of basal leaves appressed to midveins 2–4 cm, then spreading) Arnoglossum album
5 Phyllary wings (entire or sinuate) ± uniform or highest at apices (lateral veins of leaves spreading from bases) > 6
6 Involucres 12–15 mm; corollas (9–)11–12 mm; cauline leaves: margins crenulate Arnoglossum floridanum
6 Involucres 8–14 mm; corollas 7–11.5 mm; cauline leaves: margins crenulate, denticulate, entire, serrulate, or sinuate > 7
7 Involucres (9.5–)10–12(–14) mm; corollas 8–10(–11.5) mm (mid-stem leaves petiolate, bases rounded) Arnoglossum plantagineum
7 Involucres (8–)9.5–10(–12) mm; corollas 7–8(–9.5) mm (mid-stem leaves sessile, bases broadly cuneate) Arnoglossum sulcatum
Facts about "Arnoglossum"
AuthorLoran C. Anderson +
Common nameIndian plantain +
EtymologyGreek arnos, lamb, and glossum, tongue + and ancient name for some species of Plantago +
IllustratorYevonn Wilson-Ramsey +
Referencekral1958a +, pippen1978a + and robinson1974b +
SynonymConophora + and Mesadenia +
Taxon nameArnoglossum +
Taxon parentAsteraceae tribe Senecioneae +
Taxon rankgenus +
VolumeVolume 20 +