Throughout the Northern Hemisphere with a few widespread species in montane habitats worldwide, North America, Mexico, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia (China, Japan), Africa, Indian Ocean Islands (Madagascar), Pacific Islands (New Zealand), Australia.
Genera 2, species ca. 34 (2 genera, 15 species in the flora).
In the flora area the family Encalyptaceae is distinguished by a massive and persistent calyptra completely covering the capsule. Other characteristics such as habitat, spore ornamentation, and broad leaves with papillose or mammillose distal leaf cells help to define the group, but these characters are shared with other acrocarpous mosses. Reference should be made to the detailed treatment of D. G. Horton (1982, 1983) for the North American taxa.