Nearly worldwide, temperate and tropical regions.
Genera 29, species ca. 140 (8 genera, 14 species in the flora).
Neckeraceae traditionally has included shelf-forming (Homalia, Neckera, and Neckeropsis) and dendroid (Porotrichum and Thamnobryum) pleurocarpous mosses. As characterized by M. Fleischer (1906) and V. F. Brotherus (1924–1925), the family was divided into Neckeroideae Brotherus and Thamnioideae M. Fleischer, reflecting the two growth forms. The relationship between these two groups has been demonstrated in phylogenetic analyses (E. De Luna et al. 2000; H. Tsubota et al. 2004; A. V. Troitsky et al. 2007), where both groups are nested in a larger clade.
|1||Plants dendroid; stems forming stipe, pinnate to sparsely branched distally; stem and branch leaf marginal teeth straight when present||> 2|
|1||Plants shelf-forming, occasionally frondose; stems creeping, irregularly branched along stem; stem and branch leaf margins entire, slightly serrate, or serrate and teeth recurved||> 3|
|2||Plants shiny; secondary stem and branch leaves flat, erect; costae slender.||Porotrichum|
|2||Plants slightly shiny to dull; secondary stem and branch leaves concave, erect to erect- spreading; costae stout.||Thamnobryum|
|3||Small lobe present at adaxial base of lateral leaves.||Homaliadelphus|
|3||Leaf basal lobes absent||> 4|
|4||Stem and branch leaves usually imbricate||> 5|
|4||Stem and branch leaves usually erect to erect-spreading||> 6|
|5||Some stem and branch leaves finely plicate, ovate to ovate-oblong; apices abruptly acute to acuminate; ecostate or costae double, rarely single.||Neomacounia|
|5||Stem and branch leaves not plicate, ovate to elliptic; apices rounded-obtuse; costae single.||Bryolawtonia|
|6||Stem and branch leaf apices obtuse to acuminate; costae usually double.||Neckera|
|6||Stem and branch leaf apices rounded to rounded-truncate or obtuse; costae usually single||> 7|
|7||Reproductive branches with leaflike paraphyses at base of seta; stem and branch leaves spreading to squarrose, undulate to flat, oblong or oblong- ligulate; apices rounded-truncate.||Neckeropsis|
|7||Reproductive branches without leaflike paraphyses; stem and branch leaves erect-spreading, flat, oblong-ovate to oblong-obovate; apices rounded or obtuse.||Homalia|