Boreal to tropical regions worldwide.
The extensive literature on morphology and taxonomy of Typhaceae has been recently reviewed by (U. Müller-Doblies and D. Müller-Doblies (1977); R. M. T. Dahlgren and H. T. Clifford (1982); R. M. T. Dahlgren et al. (19853); and J. W. Thieret and J. O. Luken (1996). The inflorescence is probably reduced from a compound structure.
Sparganium and Typha are very similar and perhaps should be placed in one family, as summarized by J. W. Thieret and J. O. Luken (1996): T (J. W. Thieret and J. O. Luken 1996). Other authors (e.g., D. Müller-Doblies 1970; U. Müller-Doblies and D. Müller-Doblies 1977; W. Schultze-Motel 1980) placed Sparganium in the Typhaceae.
Pre-Englerian [authors] ... placed Typha and Sparganium together in a single family, the Typhaceae. [H. G. A.] Engler (1886) put these genera in separate families, thus starting a tradition that has been followed by almost all subsequent authors until recently, when [D.] Müller-Doblies (1970) re-examined the relationships of the genera and concluded that "the five different characters by which Engler justified the family Sparganiaceae are wrong or, in two cases, without any significance... The few remaining but very obvious differences may be explained to a large extend [sic] by an adaptation of Typha to anemochory [wind-dispersal of propagules]...."
The phylogenetic relationships of the Typhales with other families remain controversial, and it seems best to treat the taxon as an isolated order of uncertain relationships pending further research. Various authors have placed the Typhales close to or within the Pandanales, Arales, Poales, Liliales, Pontederiales, or Philydrales or in the Commeliniflorae generally close to the Cyperales and Juncales (J. W. Thieret and J. O. Luken 1996).
Genus Genera 1, species ca. 8–13 (3 in the flora).
Finlayson, C. M., J. Roberts, A. J. Chick, and P. J. M. Sale. 1983. The biology of Australian weeds. II. Typha domingensis Pers. and Typha orientalis Presl. The J. Austral. Inst. Agric. Sci. 1983: 3--10.
Schultz-Motel, W. 1980. Typhaceae. In: H.J. Conert et al., eds. 1967--1980. Gustav Hegi's Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-europa. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. Band II. Angiospermae: Monocotyledones 2. Teil 1. Edition 3. Pp. 18--317. Berlin.
|Author||S. Galen Smith +|
|Common name||Cat-tail Family +|
|Illustrator||John Myers +|
|Reference||berlin-a +, briggs1968a +, dahlgren1982a +, dahlgren1985c +, doblies1970a +, doblies1977a +, dugle1972a +, eckardt1964a +, engler1886a +, fassett1952a +, finlayson1983a +, grace1982a +, grace1986a +, grace1988a +, harris1963a +, hotchkiss1949a +, kaul1974a +, kronfeld1889a +, little1979c +, melchior1964a +, morton1975a +, motel1980a +, naughton1966a +, ramey1981a +, smith1967a +, smith1987a +, thieret1996a + and tompkins1983a +|
|Taxon name||Typhaceae +|
|Taxon rank||family +|
|Volume||Volume 22 +|