Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n. s. 7: 388. 1841
w North America.
Species 2 (2 in the flora).
Following B. G. Baldwin (1999b), Anisocarpus comprises two species that have resided in different genera and different tribes. Anisocarpus scabridus was placed in Raillardella or Raillardiopsis—both regarded as members of Senecioneae until S. Carlquist’s (1959) anatomic studies. Anisocarpus madioides was treated in Madia and included in D. D. Keck’s (1959) informal “section Anisocarpus,” along with the other pappose species of Madia in the sense of Keck (now treated in Harmonia, Jensia, and Kyhosia). Molecular phylogenetic data support a sister-group relationship between A. madioides and A. scabridus (Baldwin 1996).
Anisocarpus madioides and A. scabridus are the only perennial herbaceous tarweeds that combine non-scapiform capitulescences, radiate heads (at least in part), ellipsoid or spheric involucres, and yellow anthers, and are the only perennials in Madiinae with 2n = 14. The two species are highly distinct ecologically: A. madioides occurs in low- to mid-elevation, forest and woodland understories; A. scabridus occurs on high-elevation, exposed scree slopes and ridges.
Artificial hybrids between the two species are vigorous, easily produced (with Anisocarpus madioides as seed parent), and largely pollen-sterile, except for large, diploid grains. B. G. Baldwin used diploid pollen from an F1 hybrid between A. madioides and A. scabridus in an artificial hybridization with a member of the closely-related Hawaiian silversword alliance, Dubautia knudsenii Hillebrand, a wet-forest tree from Kaua‘i (see M. Barrier et al. 1999).
|1||Leaves dark green, 40–130 mm, margins entire or toothed, apices acute; involucres ± globose, 4–6 mm; ray florets 8–15; disc florets functionally staminate; cypselae compressed; disc pappi of 5–8 linear, lanceolate, or quadrate, fimbrillate or erose scales 0.2–1.5 mm||Anisocarpus madioides|
|1||Leaves blue-green to grayish blue-green, 10–30 mm, margins entire, apices acute or obtuse; involucres broadly ellipsoid to campanulate, 6–12 mm; ray florets 0 or 1–3; disc florets bisexual, fertile; ray cypselae ± compressed; disc pappi of 11–21 subulate, ciliate-plumose scales 4–7 mm||Anisocarpus scabridus|
|Author||Bruce G. Baldwin + and John L. Strother +|
|Distribution||w North America. +|
|Etymology||Greek anisos, unequal or dissimilar, and karpos, fruit, alluding to contrasting ray (fertile) and disc (sterile) ovaries in type species +|
|Illustration copyright||Flora of North America Association +|
|Illustrator||Yevonn Wilson-Ramsey +|
|Publication title||Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n. s. +|
|Publication year||1841 +|
|Source xml||https://email@example.com/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation.git/src/f50eec43f223ca0e34566be0b046453a0960e173/coarse grained fna xml/V19-20-21/V21 733.xml +|
|Taxon family||Asteraceae +|
|Taxon name||Anisocarpus +|
|Taxon parent||Asteraceae (tribe Heliantheae) subtribe Madiinae +|
|Taxon rank||genus +|
|Volume||Volume 21 +|