Flora 14: 459. 1831

Common names: Jack-in-the-pulpit
Etymology: Greek aris, plant name used by Pliny, and haima, blood, in reference to the red-spotted leaves of some species
Synonyms: Muricauda Small
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 22.
Herbs, terrestrial or wetland. Corms [rhizomes] nearly globose. Leaves usually appearing with flowers, 1–2(–3), erect; petiole longer than blade; blade medium to dark green, sometimes glaucous adaxially, palmately or pedately [radiately] divided, not peltate, leaflet elliptic to broadly ovate or oblanceolate, base rounded to obtuse or attenuate, apex obtuse or acute to acuminate; primary lateral veins of each leaflet pinnate. Inflorescences: peduncle erect, nearly equal to leaves [to very short], apex not swollen; spathe variously colored or striped, distal part open at maturity, exposing tip to 1/2 or more of spadix appendage; spadix ± cylindric, surmounted by sterile appendage of variable shape. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate on same or different spadix; pistillate flowers congested; staminate flowers usually scattered, distal to pistillate flowers when both are present; perianth absent. Fruits not embedded in spadix, glossy orange to bright red. Seeds 1–6, mucilage sometimes present (not present in Arisaema triphyllum). x = 13, 14.


Mostly temperate Asia, also North America, Mexico, and Africa.


The phenomenon of sex changing in Arisaema has been investigated by many authors (e.g., P. Bierzychudek 1982; K. Clay 1993; E. Kinoshita 1986). Smaller plants produce only staminate flowers, and larger plants produce either staminate and pistillate flowers simultaneously or pistillate flowers only. Changes in gender expression are directly correlated with size and are also influenced by the environment in which the plants are growing. Reversions in phenotypic gender have been experimentally induced by such factors as removing leaf area or changing soil nutrient levels.

Although some species are cultivated as ornamentals, the genus is not of great economic importance.

Species ca. 170 (2 in the flora).


1 Leaflets 3(–5); spadix blunt apically, shorter than spathe. Arisaema triphyllum
1 Leaflets (5–)7–13(–21); spadix tapering apically, longer than spathe. Arisaema dracontium
Facts about "Arisaema"
AuthorSue A. Thompson +
AuthorityMartius +
Common nameJack-in-the-pulpit +
DistributionMostly temperate Asia +, also North America +, Mexico + and and Africa. +
EtymologyGreek aris, plant name used by Pliny, and haima, blood, in reference to the red-spotted leaves of some species +
Illustration copyrightFlora of North America Association +
IllustratorJohn Myers +
Publication titleFlora +
Publication year1831 +
Referencehuttleston1953a +, murata1990a + and treiber1980a +
Source xml grained fna xml/V22/V22 546.xml +
SynonymsMuricauda +
Taxon familyAraceae +
Taxon nameArisaema +
Taxon parentAraceae +
Taxon rankgenus +
VolumeVolume 22 +