Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 17: 1168. 1827

Common names: Bishopwood javawood toog
Etymology: For Gottleib Wilhelm T. G. Bischoff, 1797–1854, German botanist
Synonyms: Microelus Wight & Arnott Stylodiscus Bennett
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 12. Treatment on page 330. Mentioned on page 328, 329.
Trees, usually dioecious, rarely monoecious, hairy, becoming glabrate, hairs simple; branching not phyllanthoid. Leaves deciduous, alternate, pinnately compound, leaflets 3(or 5), all well developed; stipules fugacious; blade margins crenate-serrate. Inflorescences unisexual, racemose or paniculate thyrses. Pedicels present. Staminate flowers: sepals 5, distinct; petals 0; nectary absent; stamens 5; filaments distinct, adnate to pistillode base; connectives not extending beyond anthers; pistillode short-stipitate, peltate, 5-angled. Pistillate flowers: sepals deciduous, 5, distinct; petals 0; nectary absent; pistil 3(–4)-carpellate; styles 3(–4), connate at base, unbranched. Fruits drupes. Seeds 1–2 per locule, rounded-trigonous; seed coat dry, smooth; caruncle absent. x = 14.


Fla., s, e Asia, Pacific Islands, Australia, introduced also in s, e Africa.


Species 2 (1 in the flora).

Bischofia is distinctive in Phyllanthaceae by virtue of its pinnately compound leaves. H. K. Airy Shaw (1967b) placed it in his monogeneric Bischofiaceae, but embryological and anatomical data (A. K. Bhatnagar and R. N. Kapil 1973; G. A. Levin 1986b; A. M. W. Mennega 1987; G. L. Webster 1994) argue against its separation from other Phyllanthaceae. Molecular data reveal Bischofia to be a somewhat isolated early-divergent lineage of Phyllanthaceae subfam. Antidesmatoideae Hurusawa (H. Kathriarachchi et al. 2005; P. Hoffmann et al. 2006). Bischofia javanica is sometimes cultivated as a street tree in tropical regions. The second known species, B. polycarpa (H. Léveillé) Airy Shaw, is endemic to subtropical China.

Lower Taxa

Facts about "Bischofia"
AuthorW. John Hayden +
AuthorityBlume +
Common nameBishopwood +, javawood + and toog +
DistributionFla. +, s +, e Asia +, Pacific Islands +, Australia +, introduced also in s + and e Africa. +
EtymologyFor Gottleib Wilhelm T. G. Bischoff, 1797–1854, German botanist +
Illustration copyrightFlora of North America Association +
IllustratorBarbara Alongi +
Introducedtrue +
Publication titleBijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. +
Publication year1827 +
Referenceairy1967a +, bhatnagar1973a + and morton1984a +
Source xml grained fna xml/V12/V12 491.xml +
Special statusIntroduced +
SynonymsMicroelus + and Stylodiscus +
Taxon familyPhyllanthaceae +
Taxon nameBischofia +
Taxon parentPhyllanthaceae +
Taxon rankgenus +
VolumeVolume 12 +