Caryophyllaceae subfam. Caryophylloideae
in M. Napier, Encycl. Brit. ed. 7, 5: 99. 1832
North-temperate regions, Europe (esp. Mediterranean region), Asia (esp. Mediterranean region e to c Asia), Africa (Mediterranean region, Republic of South Africa).
Genera 20 or 26, species ca. 1500 (8 genera, 89 species in the flora).
Caryophylloideae can be characterized by the presence of sepals connate into a cup or (usually) long tube, clawed petals (often with appendages and auricles), and a lack of stipules. The largest genera in the family [Silene (incl. Lychnis), about 700 species; Dianthus, about 320 species] are in the Caryophylloideae; together with Gypsophila (about 150 species), these three genera include about three-quarters of the species found in the family. Three tribes are often differentiated on calyx venation and number of styles, with two, Caryophylleae and Sileneae, incorporating nearly all of the genera.
Caryophylloideae share the caryophyllad type of embryogeny with Alsinoideae and, as postulated by V. Bittrich (1993), the two may form a monophyletic group. Results from preliminary molecular studies by M. Nepokroeff et al. (2002) and R. D. Smissen et al. (2002) reinforce that hypothesis, but the relationships among members of the two subfamilies remain unclear.
Most of the molecular work within the subfamily has focused on Sileneae and more specifically on trying to determine whether or not Silene is monophyletic.
|Author||Richard K. Rabeler + and Ronald L. Hartman +|
|Authority||Arnott in M. Napier +|
|Distribution||North-temperate regions +, Europe (esp. Mediterranean region) +, Asia (esp. Mediterranean region e to c Asia) +, Africa (Mediterranean region + and Republic of South Africa). +|
|Illustration copyright||Flora of North America Association +|
|Illustrator||Barbara Alongi +|
|Publication title||in M. Napier, Encycl. Brit. ed. +|
|Publication year||1832 +|
|Reference||maguire1950a + and oxelman2000a +|
|Source xml||https://email@example.com/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation.git/src/f50eec43f223ca0e34566be0b046453a0960e173/coarse grained fna xml/V5/V5 311.xml +|
|Synonyms||Caryophyllaceae subfam. Silenoideae +|
|Taxon family||Caryophyllaceae +|
|Taxon name||Caryophyllaceae subfam. Caryophylloideae +|
|Taxon parent||Scleranthus +|
|Taxon rank||subfamily +|
|Volume||Volume 5 +|