Chaetopappa

de Candolle in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle

in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle, Prodr. 5: 301. 1836

Etymology: Greek chaite, long hair, and pappos, pappus
Synonyms: Leucelene Greene
Basionyms: Chaetanthera Nuttall
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 206. Mentioned on page 11, 17, 18, 46, 209, 210.
Annuals or perennials, 5–30 cm (sometimes glandular); taprooted or rhizomatous. Stems erect or decumbent, branched, strigose to hispido-pilose. Leaves basal (sometimes withering by flowering) and cauline; alternate; sessile or petiolate; blades 1-nerved, linear to oblanceolate-obovate or spatulate, margins entire, faces glabrous, strigose, hispidulous, or hispido-pilose, sometimes stipitate-glandular. Heads radiate, borne singly (terminal, not crowded). Involucres cylindro-turbinate to hemispheric, (3.8–6.5 ×) 2–10 mm. Phyllaries 10–50 in 2–6 series, midnerves not evident or indurate, elliptic to linear-lanceolate, unequal, margins prominently whitish-scarious, faces strigose to glabrate. Receptacles flat or slightly convex, smooth, epaleate. Ray florets 6–24(–30), pistillate, fertile; corollas usually white, sometimes bluish, usually maturing or drying blue or purple (coiling at maturity). Disc florets 5–25, bisexual and fertile or functionally staminate; corollas yellow, tubes much shorter than tubular-funnelform throats, lobes 5, erect, deltate; style-branch appendages broadly to narrowly triangular. Cypselae cylindric to narrowly obovoid, terete to compressed, 2–5-, 8-, or 10-nerved, faces strigose, sometimes gland-dotted; pappi persistent, either in 1 series, of (20–)24–26(–30; usually multiples of 5) barbellate bristles, or hyaline crowns of basally fused scales, or minute, erose, sometimes cuplike crowns, or thickened rings, or in 2 series, outer of (4–)5(–8) minute or broad, white-hyaline or scarious, sometimes irregular scales plus inner of (4–)5(–8) alternating, tawny, sometimes thick, sometimes barbellate bristles. x = 8.

Distribution

sc, sw United States, n Mexico.

Discussion

Species 11 (8 in the flora).

Chaetopappa is recognized by its entire leaves, unequal phyllaries with sharply delimited, whitish-scarious margins, and small heads with white or bluish coiling rays. The pappus varies among species: bristles, crowns of scales, combinations of bristles and scales, or essentially absent. G. S. Van Horn (1973) clarified distinctions between Chaetopappa and the essentially Californian Pentachaeta and maintained the two as separate genera. Chaetopappa elegans from New Mexico has been transferred to Ionactis (G. L. Nesom 1992), with the clarification of apparent inconsistencies in the base chromosome number of Chaetopappa.

Key

1 Leaves densely overlapping, coriaceous, with strongly raised midnerve plus a pair of longitudinal, adaxial grooves > 2
1 Leaves not densely overlapping, herbaceous, flat > 3
2 Stems 1–2(–5) cm; pappi in 2 series: inner of (4–)5(–6) bristles plus outer of minute scales Chaetopappa hersheyi
2 Stems 6–12 cm; pappi in 1 series, usually of (20–)24–26(–30) bristles Chaetopappa ericoides
3 Perennials, rhizomatous, without distinct taproot; pappi hyaline crowns > 4
3 Annuals, taprooted; pappi of scales and bristles, hyaline crowns, or minute rings > 5
4 Proximal cauline leaf blades spatulate to spatulate-obovate, 2–5 mm wide, gradually or little reduced distally, bases attenuate; pappi hyaline crowns of basally fused scales 0.3–0.8 mm Chaetopappa parryi
4 Proximal cauline leaf blades oblong to lanceolate-oblong, 6–12 mm wide, gradually to abruptly reduced distally, bases truncate to subcordate; pappi thickened rings or minute, erose crowns less than 0.1 mm Chaetopappa effusa
5 Pappi in 1 series: white-hyaline, erose-margined, asymmetric, cuplike crowns or minute, thickened rings > 6
5 Pappi in 2 series: outer scales and inner bristles > 7
6 Pappi white-hyaline, erose-margined, asymmetric cuplike crowns Chaetopappa imberbis
6 Pappi minute, thickened rings Chaetopappa bellidifolia
7 Involucres cylindro-turbinate, 2.5–5 mm wide; disc florets 6–25; cypselae 5(–6)-nerved Chaetopappa asteroides
7 Involucres hemispheric, 4–10 mm wide; disc florets 33–106; cypselae 2–3-nerved Chaetopappa bellioides