Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 2: 266. 1818
Temperate North America, e Asia.
Species 5 (4 in the flora).
Eastern and western Native Americans used Clintonia as an eye and heart medicine, as well as a dermatological and gynecological aid (D. E. Moerman 1986).
The North American Clintonia species have bicarpellate ovaries by reduction (F. H. Utech 1973) and reticulate pollen, in contrast to the typical liliaceous tricarpellate ovaries and gemmate pollen that occur in the eastern Asian C. udensis (M. Takahashi and K. Sohma 1982; V. N. Kosenko 1991). The genus has a unique type of megasporogenesis, the “Clintonia-type” (A. N. Pahuja and V. Kumar 1971; F. H. Smith 1943; R. W. Smith 1911; R. I. Walker 1944), in which there is a selective elimination of genomes (heterotypic vs. homotypic divisions) before double fertilization, resulting in genetically identical diploid embryo and diploid endosperm nuclei. Such derived megasporogenesis is equivalent to female self-fertilization (pseudogamy).
Counts of 2n = 28 are known in all Clintonia species except for a recently discovered sympatric diploid cytotype (2n = 14) in C. udensis (Li S. F. and Chang Z. Y. 1996; Li S. F. et al. 1996). It appears therefore that the Clintonia karyotype has an ancient allopolyploid origin and that the generic base number should be viewed as x = 7 and not x = 14. Based on these karyological data, an early eastern Asian and North American divergence with speciation and polyploidization occurring in North America is postulated.
M. N. Tamura (1998c) included Medeola and Clintonia in the tribe Medeoloideae within a narrowly defined Liliaceae, and molecular analysis supports the association of those two genera (K. Hayashi et al. 1998, 2001; M. F. Fay and M. W. Chase 2000).
Utech, F. H. 1975. Biosystematic studies in Clintonia (Liliaceae-Polygonatae) III. Cytogeography, chromosome numbers and chromosomal morphology of the North American species of Clintonia. Cytologia 40: 765–786.
|1||Inflorescences 1–8(–10)-flowered, in short, terminal racemes.||> 2|
|1||Inflorescences 10–45-flowered, in terminal and/or lateral, umbel-like clusters.||> 2|
|2||Plants 1.5–2.5 dm; inflorescences 1- or 2-flowered; tepals creamy white, 18–25 mm; anthers 3.5–5.5 mm; w North America.||Clintonia uniflora|
|2||Plants 2–5 dm; inflorescences 3–8(–10)-flowered, in short, terminal racemes; tepals yellow to yellowish green, 12–16 mm; anthers 2–3.5 mm; e North America.||Clintonia borealis|
|3||Inflorescences 20–45-flowered, lateral clusters usually present; tepals claret red, narrowly oblong to oblanceolate, 10–18 mm; berries blue to bluish black, 10–30-seeded; California, Oregon.||Clintonia andrewsiana|
|3||Inflorescences 10–25(–30)-flowered, in terminal clusters only; tepals white, often spotted purplish brown or green distally, ovoid-obovate, 5.5–8 mm; berries black, 2–4-seeded; e North America.||Clintonia umbellulata|
|Author||Frederick H. Utech +|
|Common name||Clintonia +|
|Distribution||Temperate North America + and E Asia. +|
|Etymology||for De Witt Clinton (1769–1828), statesman and several-times governor of New York +|
|Illustrator||Yevonn Wilson-Ramsey +|
|Publication title||Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. +|
|Publication year||1818 +|
|Reference||utech1973a +, utech1975a + and yoshida2001a +|
|Source xml||https://email@example.com/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation.git/src/f6b125a955440c0872999024f038d74684f65921/coarse grained fna xml/V26/V26 243.xml +|
|Taxon family||Liliaceae +|
|Taxon name||Clintonia +|
|Taxon parent||Liliaceae +|
|Taxon rank||genus +|
|Volume||Volume 26 +|