Constancea

B. G. Baldwin

Madroño 46: 159. 2000

Etymology: For Lincoln Constance, 1909–2001, Californian botanist
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 21. Treatment on page 362. Mentioned on page 336, 353, 363.
Subshrubs, 50–150(–200) cm. Stems decumbent to ± erect, branched from bases or throughout (densely white-tomentose to glabrate). Leaves cauline; alternate; petiolate; blades broadly ovate, 1–2-pinnately lobed (lobes oblong or oblanceolate to linear), ultimate margins entire (somewhat revolute, apices ± rounded), faces white-tomentose (adaxial often glabrescent). Heads radiate, (50–100+) in corymbiform or paniculiform arrays. Involucres cylindric to campanulate, 3–5 mm diam. Phyllaries persistent, 8–16 in ± 2 series (± erect in fruit, distinct, oblong to linear, ± herbaceous, ± keeled). Receptacles flat to convex, shallowly pitted, glabrous, epaleate. Ray florets 4–9, pistillate, fertile; corollas yellow. Disc florets 10–25+, bisexual, fertile; corollas yellow, tubes shorter than campanulate or narrowly funnelform throats, lobes 5, deltate. Cypselae (blackish, dull) obpyramidal to clavate, ± scabrellous to glabrate; pappi persistent, of 2–6+ unequal (or 2 opposite, longer, and ± equal), basally connate, oblong to subulate scales (tips acute to erose). x = 19.

Discussion

Species 1.

Recognition of Constancea is based on morphologic, cytologic, and molecular evidence for polyphyly of Eriophyllum if E. nevinii is included. Constancea has characteristics found in other, closely related x = 19 “helenioid” genera that are unusual or absent in the clade represented by Eriophyllum, Pseudobahia, and Syntrichopappus, such as leaves with well-developed petioles, phyllaries in more than one series and more than the number of ray florets, and pappus scales unequal or a longer pair opposite and ± equal. The previously suggested close relationship between Constancea and another coastal subshrub, E. staechadifolium, is untenable.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa