Lithophragma

(Nuttall) Torrey & A. Gray
Fl. N. Amer. 1: 583. 1840, name conserved ,.
Common names: Woodland-star
Etymology: Greek lithos, stone, and phragma, hedge or fence, alluding to rocky habitat or an unsuccessful attempt to render Saxifraga in Greek
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 8. Treatment on page 77. Mentioned on page 43, 45, 46, 76.

Herbs, rhizomatous, not stoloniferous; caudex sometimes bearing bulbils. Flowering stems erect, leafy, 8–85 cm, stipitate-glandular. Leaves in basal rosette and cauline; cauline leaves (1–)2(–10), usually alternate (opposite in L. cymbalaria), unlobed, lobed, or palmately compound, sometimes with bulbils in axils; stipules present; petiole stipitate-glandular; blade rhombic or orbiculate to reniform, lobed, base cordate, hastate, rounded, ligulate, or cuneate, ultimate margins entire or toothed, apex obtuse or acute, surfaces often stipitate-glandular; venation palmate. Inflorescences compact or lax racemes, arising from axillary buds in basal rosette, 2–12(–25)-flowered, sometimes flowers solitary, (flowers sometimes replaced by bulbils), bracteate. Flowers: hypanthium partially adnate to proximal 1/2 to entire length of ovary, free from ovary 1–2 mm, green; sepals 5, green tinged with red; petals 5, white or pink; nectariferous tissue inconspicuous; stamens 10, (inserted on hypanthium, inner whorl attached proximal to point of petal insertion); filaments filiform; (anthers cordate); pistil 3-carpellate; ovary superior to 1/2 or almost completely inferior, 1-locular, carpels fully connate at ovaries; placentation parietal; styles 3; stigmas 3. Capsules 3-beaked. Seeds (50–200), usually dark brown, ovoid, smooth, wrinkled, or tuberculate. x = 7.

Distribution

w North America.

Discussion

Tellima R. Brown [unranked] Lithophragma Nuttall, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7: 26. 1834 (as Lithofragma); Pleurendotria Rafinesque, name rejected

Species 10 (10 in the flora).

Key

1 Leaves palmately compound, 3-foliolate; seeds spiny. Lithophragma maximum
1 Leaves unlobed or lobed, or 3-foliolate; seeds smooth, wrinkled, tuberculate, or rough > 2
2 Stigma papillae in narrow subapical band; seeds smooth or wrinkled > 3
2 Stigma papillae covering apical surface; seeds tuberculate, tubercles in 3-19 rows, blunt or spinelike > 6
3 Leaf blades light green; cauline leaves 3-lobed, appearing pinnatifid; flowers persistent, slightly pendulous; racemes erect; petals 5-7-lobed; ovaries to 1/2 inferior. Lithophragma tenellum
3 Leaf blades dark green or reddish green; cauline leaves 3-foliolate or 3-lobed; flowers deciduous if unfertilized, horizontal; racemes often lax, nodding; petals 3-lobed; ovaries 1/2+ inferior > 4
4 Hypanthia elongate-obconic, length 3-4 times diam.; petals pink; flowers fragrant. Lithophragma trifoliatum
4 Hypanthia obconic to obconic-elongate, length 2 times diam.; petals usually white, sometimes pink; flowers not fragrant > 5
5 Cauline leaves 3-foliolate; hypanthia obconic-elongate; petals white or pink, often with prominent venation, 3-lobed, obovate-rhombic, widely spreading, ultimate margins entire; ovaries 1/2+ inferior. Lithophragma parviflorum
5 Cauline leaves 3-lobed; hypanthia obconic; petals white with obscure venation, usually shallowly 3-lobed, ovate-elliptic, not widely spreading, ultimate margins sometimes with extra tooth, (lobes acute); ovaries ± completely inferior. Lithophragma affine
6 Cauline leaves opposite (1 pair); flowering stems simple; petals unlobed, without serrations at base, ultimate margins entire. Lithophragma cymbalaria
6 Cauline leaves alternate; flowering stems often branched; petals lobed or, if unlobed, margins sometimes with serrations at base > 7
7 Hypanthia broadly campanulate; flowers pendulous, petals partly included, ovate-elliptic, ultimate margins lacerate; flowers ± sessile. Lithophragma campanulatum
7 Hypanthia narrowly campanulate; flowers horizontal, petals completely exserted, obovate-pandurate, ovate-elliptic, or ovate and palmately 5-lobed, ultimate margins entire; flowers long-pedicellate > 8
8 Hypanthia with truncate base; petals white, simple or 3-7-lobed; flowers not fragrant; racemes lax, nodding; cauline leaves 2-10; ovaries superior. Lithophragma heterophyllum
8 Hypanthia with acute, obtuse, or hemispheric base; petals white or pink, unlobed, serrately 3-5-lobed, or 5-lobed; flowers sometimes fragrant; racemes erect; cauline leaves 2-4; ovaries to 1/2 inferior > 9
9 Plants usually robust; leaves usually unlobed or 3-5-lobed; petals white, unlobed or 3-5-lobed with serrations at base; inflorescences 2(-3)-branched, 3-5(-25)-flowered racemes, flowers rarely replaced with bulbils. Lithophragma bolanderi
9 Plants usually fragile; leaves lobed (lobes rounded); petals usually pink, rarely white, palmately 5-lobed, base without serrations; inflorescences rarely branched (unless plant with bulbils), solitary flowers or 2-5(-7)-flowered racemes, often appearing corymbose; flowers sometimes replaced with bulbils. Lithophragma glabrum
... more about "Lithophragma"
Roy L. Taylor +
(Nuttall) Torrey & A. Gray +
Woodland-star +
w North America. +
Greek lithos, stone, and phragma, hedge or fence, alluding to rocky habitat +  and or an unsuccessful attempt to render Saxifraga in Greek +
Fl. N. Amer. +
kuzoff1999a +, kuzoff2001a +  and taylor1965a +
Lithophragma +
Saxifragaceae +