Stems simple or branched, 5–30(–47) cm; branches spreading-ascending, obtusely quadrangular proximally to quadrangular with wings on angles distally, glabrous or sparsely scabridulous. Leaves spreading; blade linear-elliptic to elliptic, 6–40 x 0.8–5 mm, not fleshy, margins entire, abaxial midvein sparsely scabrous, adaxial surface scabrous; axillary fascicles absent or shorter than subtending leaves. Inflorescences racemes, flowers 2 per node; bracts longer than pedicels. Pedicels spreading-ascending, (0.8–)1.5–5.3(–6.5) mm, glabrous. Flowers: calyx hemispheric-campanulate, tube 1.5–3 mm, glabrous, lobes triangular-lanceolate, 1.1–4(–5) mm, unequal, mid adaxial shortest; corolla pale to dark pink, with 2 yellow lines and red spots in abaxial throat, or lines faint or absent, (8–)10–15 mm, throat pilose externally and villous within across bases and sinus of adaxial lobes, lobes: abaxial slightly spreading to projected, adaxial slightly spreading or projected distal to corolla mouth, 1.6–6 mm, unequal, pilose or densely so externally; proximal and distal anthers parallel to filaments, pollen sacs 1–2 mm; style included, (3–)4–7.5 mm. Capsules globular, 5–6 mm. Seeds brown, 0.9–1.5 mm. 2n = 28.
Phenology: Flowering late Jul–early Sep.
Habitat: Sandy or peaty soils, margins of pools, lakes, bogs, estuaries, and marshes, sand flats, dune hollows, ditches.
Elevation: 0–10 m.
N.B., N.S., Maine.
Agalinis neoscotica is rare in Maine, occurring only in Washington County on shores and tidal pools, and in adjacent eastern New Brunswick; it is most abundant in southwestern Nova Scotia and is reported from neighboring Grand Manan Island and Sable Island on the extreme northeastern edge of the range of Agalinis.
Features that characterize Agalinis neoscotica are narrow tubular corolla throats with red spots in two rows on the two yellow lines (the lines sometimes absent); corolla lobes that either project forward or are only slightly spreading; relatively small anthers, all held parallel to the filaments; two-lobed stigmas, obvious in live plants but rarely on dried specimens; both anthers and stigma included within the corolla throat; calyx in which the middle adaxial lobe is shortest and curved toward the corolla; bracts longer than both the pedicels and flowers they subtend and, sometimes, longer than the main stem leaves; and leaves with narrowed bases that terminate at a creaselike abscission zone. Agalinis neoscotica has a mixed mating system (H. M. Stewart et al. 1996). Self-pollination occurs in bud but delayed pollen germination allows for out-crossing. Stewart and J. M. Canne (1998) presented data that showed A. neoscotica flower development and morphology differ from those of A. purpurea.