Property:Habitat

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Fertile, well-drained soil with ample moisture, waste places  +
Moist, coastal coniferous forests  +
Boreal and northern forests  +
Continental, subalpine coniferous forests  +
Dry, coastal coniferous forests  +
Coniferous forests  +
Mountain forests  +
Moist, coastal coniferous forests and mountain slopes  +
Coastal, subalpine coniferous forests  +
Mixed coniferous forests  +
Mixed coniferous forests  +
Mixed coniferous forests  +
Dry, exposed calcareous rock and soil, sand of partially stabilized dunes, talus at base of cliffs, humus in open, coniferous forests  +
Rocky, gravelly savanna, solution pockets in limerock  +
Sandy soils, alpine meadows  +
Sandy soils, live-oak grasslands  +
Sandy soils, lake shores  +
Sandy soils, desert scrub  +
Clay soils, desert scrub to pinyon-juniper woodlands  +
Shrubby gypsum hills  +
Gypseous sandy or gravelly soils, open areas, among sparse shrubs  +
Calcareous or gypseous, clay or silty soils, shrublands  +
Sandy or gravelly soils, desert grasslands, scrub  +
Dry sandy soils, scrub and grasslands  +
Sandy soils, coastal scrub, lees of dunes adjacent to strand  +
Sand dunes  +
Foredunes and unstable dunes near strand  +
Sandy soils, cold desert scrub, grasslands  +
Dry sandy and rocky areas, pinyon-juniper woodlands, yellow-pine forests  +
Rocky limestone, scrub, pinyon-juniper woodlands, pine forests  +
Sandy soils, Joshua tree desert scrub  +
Sandy soils, desert scrub  +
Sandy soils, coastal scrub, lees of dunes near strand  +
Sandy soils, coastal scrub, lees of dunes near strand  +
Sandy soils, coastal scrub, lees of dunes near strand  +
Sandy soils, sage-scrub, chaparral  +
Sandy soils, creosote bushscrub  +
Open, arid habitats  +
Open, arid habitats  +
Open, arid habitats  +
Open, arid habitats  +
Disturbed sites  +
Roadsides, disturbed sites, secondary vegetation  +
Dry shrublands, roadsides, disturbed sites  +
Open, arid habitats, hills and plains  +
Arid habitats, hillsides, plains, canyons  +
Open desert habitats, along water courses  +
Desert habitats  +
Mountain slopes, desert scrublands  +
Dry, open habitats  +
Coastal areas, disturbed sites, often on limestone soil  +
Arid hillsides, along water courses  +
Soybean, corn, and cotton fields, naturalized in disturbed sites  +
Dry shrublands, disturbed vegetation, roadsides  +
Dry, open habitats, roadsides  +
Roadsides and paths, forest edges, logged lands, lawns, among cultivated ground covers and waste grounds  +
Coastal sands  +
Coastal grasslands, open rocky slopes, sand dunes, old roadsides  +
Disturbed areas.  +
Disturbed areas.  +
Disturbed areas.  +
Arid rocky slopes, desert washes.  +
Rocky pine woods, disturbed areas.  +
Moist bottomland woods, near streams or rivers, rarely in moist upland forests.  +
Pine and pine-oak woods, dry hardwood forests, glades, prairies, disturbed areas, usually on sand or shallow rocky soils.  +
Pine and oak woods, prairies, barrens, on sandy or shallow rocky soils.  +
Dry, open, rocky, gravelly, or sandy areas.  +
Moist or shaded areas, oak or pine woodlands, desert grasslands.  +
Stream banks, edges of woods, disturbed areas, agricultural fields.  +
Rocky areas, grasslands, oak, pine, or juniper woodlands.  +
Disturbed areas.  +
Grassy openings, dunes, and oak or mesquite woodlands, usually on deep sand.  +
Deciduous and evergreen woods, moist depressions, swampy areas, riverbanks, agricultural fields, disturbed areas.  +
Disturbed areas.  +
Deciduous and evergreen woods, riverbanks, agricultural fields, disturbed areas.  +
Old home sites, disturbed areas.  +
Mesas, ridges, slopes, ravines, washes, in various shrub associations, commonly with Larrea, Yucca, Ambrosia, Artemisia, Ephedra, Atriplex  +
Gravelly soils, deserts, juniper woodlands  +
Gravelly, rocky soils, grasslands, deserts, woodlands  +
Sandy soils of dense thickets, hammocks, bottomlands of coastal areas  +
Sandy flats and slopes, chaparral communities, montane conifer woodlands  +
Sandy flats and slopes, montane conifer forests  +
Sandy calcareous slopes, chaparral communities  +
Sandy to gravelly flats and slopes, chaparral communities, montane conifer woodlands  +
Disturbed, often sandy sites  +
Disturbed, often sandy sites  +
Disturbed, often sandy sites  +
Soil, among grasses, pastures  +
Soil, gravel pit, pasture, lawn  +
Soil, dry washes  +
Soil, sand, clay, old fields, pastures, roadside banks, temporarily moist areas  +
Meadows, forest edges, roadsides, lakeshores, along streams, moist soils  +
Pastures, meadows, roadsides, stream sides, woodlands, waste grounds, dry or sandy soils, also in damp, clayey, and salty soils  +
Pastures, disturbed roadsides  +
Roadsides, disturbed sites, open fields and pastures, in sandy or gravelly soils or in moist to drying silty soils  +
Coastal and mountainous regions, Sequoia sempervirens and Pseudotsuga menziesii forests  +
Mountain regions in Cascade Range and Coast Range of California in coniferous forests  +
Grassy, often wet sites, usually with clay-rich soils  +
Dry, sandy waste places, near woolen mills  +
Waste places, chrome ore piles, hammocks  +
Wooded riverbanks  +
Dry, sandy areas, sand dunes, desert washes  +
Calcareous or gypseous soils in grasslands and shrublands  +
Arid, well-drained, often rocky, igneous, calcareous, or gypseous soils  +
Rocky, gravelly, or sandy soils, limestone or shale outcrops in grasslands or shrublands  +
Dry, sandy, and gravelly areas, rock, gypseous clay  +
Rocky, calcareous soils in cenizo (Leucophyllum frutescens) shrublands and grasslands  +
Dry clay and sandy, commonly calcareous or gypseous, soils  +
Gypsum hills and flats  +
Rocky, gravelly, loamy, or sandy calcareous, gypseous, or igneous-derived soils in deserts, grasslands, shrublands, or woodlands  +
Dry rocky soils, commonly with Larrea  +
Sandy, silty, or clay soils on calcareous or igneous substrates in grasslands, shrublands, or woodlands  +
Dry gypseous clays and shales  +
Various soils on calcareous substrates in grasslands or shrublands  +
Disturbed sites  +
Disturbed, wet or drying sites  +
Thin, rocky soil over limestone in hydric hammocks, wet savannas, and swamps of Everglades  +
Spring-fed bogs, seep areas, meadows, along streams, and in other wet areas  +
Spring-fed bogs, seep areas, meadows, along streams, and other moist areas in mountains  +
Meadows, along creeks, thickets, woods, rocky slopes, and alpine tundra  +
Meadows, thickets, and forests  +
Shaded ravines of woods in mountains and upper piedmont  +
Wet areas along streams and in springs, also less mesic locations in woods and clearings  +
Montane slopes above treeline, steep hillsides, steep cut banks or sandy loam of rivers  +
Moist hillsides, waste places, streambanks, sandy lake shores, talus slopes above treeline  +
Steep subalpine slopes, volcanic fell fields, often on talus or pumice  +
Mountain slopes, talus slopes, edges of serpentine outcrops  +
Sandy to rocky spruce-fir forests  +
Alpine and subalpine meadows, talus slopes, streambanks  +
Wet open areas, marshes, swales, and along edges of quiet water  +
Wet open areas, marshes, swales, and along edges of quiet water  +
Gravel and caliche soils in scrub oak, oak woodlands, and chaparral  +
Gravel, sandstone, silty, or caliche soils in desert scrub  +
Juniper forests, oak woodlands, dry matorral, desert scrub on calcareous, sandy clay, and gypsiferous soils  +
Gravel and caliche soils in warm Sonoran desert scrub  +
Gravel, caliche, or sandy loamy soils in open desert (Lower Sonoran Desert)  +
Woodlands and hammocks  +
Rotten logs, tree bark, charred wood, moist live-oak hammocks  +
Fields, roadsides, riverbanks, ditch banks, clearcuts, cultivated ground  +
Coastal mangrove swamps, salt marshes, low hammocks, along lake and canal margins  +
Somewhat saline to freshwater swamps, canal and pond margins, commonly in sinkholes in hammocks, disturbed marl sites, inland to coastal regions  +
Deciduous forests, less often with pines, junipers, or other conifers  +
Mostly deciduous forests, also mixed coniferous forests, open pine or spruce woodlands, swales, stream banks, and swamps  +
On and around rotten stumps and decomposing litter in damp forests and open baylands.  +
Subtropical semideciduous woodlands on loamy soils, occasionally shrublands on sandy to gravelly soils.  +
Woods, forests, usually in shade  +
Sandy and gravelly soils of washes and alluvial fans in deserts  +
Alluvial fans and rocky slopes in deserts  +
Wettish sites in otherwise arid areas, coarse, sandy alluvium  +
Dry slopes, ridges, lower chaparral and coastal sage scrub  +
Mesas, ravines, coastal sage scrub-chaparral  +
Dry granitic slopes, mesas, ravines, chaparral, pinyon woodlands  +
Wooded ravines, shaded banks, talus slopes, serpentine barrens, and coastal headlands (uncommon)  +
Moist calcareous cliffs, banks, and ledges along streams and rivers, walls of lime sinks, canyon walls (in the American southwest), around foundations, on mortar of storm drains  +
Banks and old walls  +
Seasonally moist, shaded, rocky banks, canyons, and ravines  +
Hammocks and limestone sinks in Everglades National Park  +
Rich, deciduous woodlands, often on humus-covered talus slopes and moist lime soils  +
Restricted to moist, shaded, limestone ledges, sink walls, and grottoes in the flora  +
Moist, shaded, limestone cliffs along streams and rivers, on boulders in creeks, and among rocks on steep slopes  +
Restricted to serpentine sites where it occurs in rock clefts, on talus slopes, and in well-developed serpentine soils  +
Moist coves, rocky woods, ledges, alluvial slopes, and thickets  +
Rocky slopes, dry canyons and washes, fields, roadsides, arroyos and hillsides near seeps, streambeds, chaparral, coastal sage scrub.  +
Open slopes and washes, rocky outcrops, limestone and igneous substrates, roadsides, chaparral, oak-juniper and mixed conifer-oak woodlands.  +
Roadsides, fields, sagebrush scrub, and open pine or aspen forests in valleys and foothills  +
Prairies, fields, river banks, and waste places  +
Roadsides and sites adjacent to gardens  +
Cliffs and banks near sea  +
North-facing cliffs in canyons and above sea  +
Bogs, wet flatwoods, hydric savannas, seepage slopes.  +
Tallgrass or loess hills or upland prairies, dry rocky or sandy soils over limestone, limestone bluffs, gravelly moraines.  +
Seasonally wet meadows, mesic prairies, glades, roadsides, fallow fields.  +
Oak woods, dry loamy soils.  +
Wet alkaline, saline meadows and marshes associated with springs and seeps.  +
Sand plain grasslands, dry prairie remnants, dry roadsides, cemeteries, margins and openings in mesic to dry mixed woodlands, serpentine grasslands.  +
Prairies, grassy roadsides, pastures, well-drained calcareous soils.  +
Dry open pine savannas, dry oak openings, dry sandy ground, mesic flatwoods, margins of bogs and seepage slopes, dry roadsides.  +
Grasslands, open rocky slopes, calcareous, clay or sandy soils.  +
Dry or wet sandy ground, waste places, roadsides, ditches, pastures, fallow fields, alluvial ground of streams, brackish soils, thickets, lawns.  +
Mesic to moist longleaf pine forests, moist prairies, shallow bogs, moist roadsides, remnant wiregrass communities, borrow pits.  +
Xeric, sandy, open pine forests, open coastal scrub habitats, dunes, open areas of pine flatwoods, hydric soils of pine flatwoods.  +
Mesic to moist soils, open, wiregrass-dominated longleaf pine systems, savannas, prairies, seepage slopes, depressed wetlands, disturbed ground.  +
Dry roadsides, open woodlands, forest margins, mesic prairies, glades, bluffs, exposed ridges, alvars, often in cherty limestone, or sandy, rocky soils.  +
Dry or moist longleaf pine savannas, oak openings, wiregrass-dominated seepage slopes, margins of bogs.  +
Wet to mesic savannas, bogs, wet prairies, borders of fresh to brackish marshes, roadsides and ditches, drier sites near these habitats.  +
Moist open sites, moist prairies, margins of mesic to wet forests, fallow fields, roadsides, ditches, margins of marshes and ponds, disturbed sandy soils.  +
Dry, open woodlands, dry to xeric sandy terrace communities above streams, dry roadsides, open sandy habitats.  +
Dry to mesic pinelands, pine and oak savannas, sand hills, openings in saw palmetto flatwoods, sandy soils.  +
Wet savannas and prairies, depressed areas of mesic savannas or open flatwoods, bogs, margins and centers of cypress domes, margins of ponds, lakes, brackish and freshwater marshes, open stream banks, roadsides, ditches.  +
Saline coastal areas, salt marshes, edges of saline or brackish pools, open salt terns, edges of ditches, salt flats, and tidal flats.  +
Salt marshes, salt flats, tidal flats, edges of saline or brackish pools, ditches.  +
Rocky prairie remnants on sandstone outcrops, sandy clay soils of longleaf pine savannas.  +
Sandy or peaty soils, margins of pools, lakes, bogs, estuaries, and marshes, sand flats, dune hollows, ditches.  +
Mesic to dry savannas, dry roadsides with native vegetation, open rocky ground, open pine flatwoods, cutover and edges of pine plantations, margins of bogs and seepage slopes.  +
Moist to dry longleaf pine savannas, edges of pine plantations, dry roadsides, chalky outcrops, seepage slopes of clay roadsides.  +
Dry to xeric, sandy, gravelly or clay roadsides, pine-oak forests, margins of savannas, disturbed ground.  +
Dry, open pine savannas, open pine-oak sandhills, dry upslope areas of wiregrass-dominated mesic prairies, chalky glades or roadsides, dry sandy or clay roadsides beside existing or remnant savannas.  +
Moist sandy, clay, or peaty soils at margins of ponds, lakes, streams, bogs, freshwater or brackish marshes, ditches, roadsides.  +
Moist sandy soils at margins of ponds, lakes, streams, bogs, freshwater and brackish marshes, ditches, pine barrens, meadows, prairies, coastal swales, dry soils, margins of pine plantations, inundated marl prairies.  +
Dry sandy soils, pine savannas, margins of pine-oak woodlands and scrub, sand hills, roadside embankments.  +
Dry to mesic areas in sand and loess hill prairies, bluff prairies, dolomite glades, dunes, open woods, areas of low and/or sparse herbaceous cover.  +
Grasslands, old fields, pastures, open mesquite plains, dunes along Gulf Coast.  +
Dry sandy to mesic pine savannas, margins of pine plantations, mixed open woodlands and oak-pine scrub, open pine-palmetto palm woodlands, ditch banks, sandy embankments, roadsides.  +
Wet to dry roadsides, ditches, margins of streams and ponds, borders of woodlands, dry to moist prairies, fallow fields, railroad embankments, rocky cliff faces and bluffs.  +
Mesic to wet areas of prairies, moist to wet savannas, moist roadsides, mesic to wet edges of recently clear-cut forests, dry or wet roadsides.  +
Acid swamps to moist broadleaved forests, especially along streams, in ravines, or near springs  +
Sandy places in desert scrub  +
Sandy places in desert scrub  +
Sandy places in desert scrub and grasslands  +
Sandy to gravelly, often calcareous places in desert scrub  +
Sandy to gravelly places on granitic or volcanic soils in desert scrub, grasslands, pinyon-juniper, and oak woodlands  +
Sandy soil in hammocks  +
Gravelly places with desert scrub, rarely in chaparral or pinyon-juniper woodlands  +
Sandy to gravelly or rocky places in desert scrub and pinyon juniper woodlands  +
Sandy to gravelly or rocky places in desert scrub and pinyon juniper woodlands  +
Sandy places along roadsides and in hammocks  +
Gravelly to rocky, often calcareous places in grasslands, desert scrub, and pinyon juniper woodlands  +
Gravelly to rocky, often calcareous places in grasslands, desert scrub, pinyon-juniper, and oak woodlands  +
Gravelly to rocky calcareous places in desert scrub  +
Sandy to gravelly or rocky places with desert scrub, chaparral and pinyon-juniper woodlands  +
Near drainage systems in desert scrub  +
Sandy places near beaches  +
Sandy to gravelly places on limestone in oak woodlands and grassy plains  +
Gravelly to rocky places in grasslands and desert scrub  +
Gravelly places in grasslands, chaparral, pinyon-juniper, and oak woodlands  +
Gravelly places in oak and pine woodlands  +
Gravelly to rocky places in grasslands, desert scrub, chaparral, pinyon-juniper, and oak woodlands  +
Open rocky slopes, mostly in desert grasslands and oak woodlands  +
Sandy to gravelly places with desert scrub  +
Gravelly to rocky places, mostly in desert scrub, grasslands, juniper and oak woodlands  +
Gravelly to rocky places, mostly in desert scrub, grasslands, juniper and oak woodlands  +
Coastal bluffs with coastal sage scrub and chaparral  +
Sandy places along roadsides and in hammocks  +
Open gravelly to rocky limestone or basalt slopes, mostly with desert scrub, chaparral, and pinyon?juniper woodlands  +
Open gravelly to rocky limestone or basalt slopes, mostly with desert scrub, chaparral, and pinyon-juniper woodlands  +
Sandy flats  +
Calcareous outcrops with desert scrub  +
Calcareous or sandstone outcrops in desert scrub, pinyon-juniper, or adjacent conifer woodlands  +
Calcareous outcrops with desert scrub  +
Calcareous outcrops with desert scrub  +
Calcareous outcrops with desert scrub  +
Calcareous outcrops with desert scrub  +
Sandy places with grasses and low shrubs  +
Rocky slopes in desert scrub and grasslands  +
Rocky slopes in chaparral and juniper-dominated grasslands  +
Gravelly calcareous slopes in grasslands and oak-juniper woodlands  +
Hammocks, orchards, waste places, ravines  +
Stream margins, ditches, road embankments, hillsides  +
Moist forests, cove forests  +
Moist forests, northern red oak, oak-chestnut, cove forests  +
Sandy soils, burned pinelands, turkey oak sand ridges, pine-oak and oak-hickory upland woods, old fields, roadsides, fencerows, moist sites  +
Bluffs, limestone outcrops and slopes, ledges along streams, often in oak-juniper woodlands  +
Pine, pine-oak, juniper, and pinyon-juniper woodlands, rocks along streams, slopes, ridges, washes  +
Sand pine scrub, longleaf pine-turkey oak sand ridges, pine-palmetto, live-oak woods, hammocks, dunes, roadsides, old fields, stream banks, dry flatwoods  +
Rocky slopes, mostly in pine-oak woodlands  +
Under overhanging sandstone (Pottsville formation) cliffs and ledges  +
Crevices, outcrops, rocky slopes, ridges, talus, gravelly and sandy stream bars, mixed hardwood-conifer woodlands, aspen, open and brushy vegetation  +
Rocky slopes, crevices, gravelly, sandy streambeds, pine-oak woodlands  +
Rocky slopes and ledges, in oak-juniper, pine-oak, pine, aspen, and spruce-fir woodland  +
Cracks and crevices of nearly vertical limestone cliffs  +
Rocky sites, oak woodland  +
Limestone slopes, ledges, alluvium, in brushy vegetation  +
Disturbed sites, mostly coastal  +
Crevices, ledges, cliffs, other rocky sites in canyons, along streams, in desert grasslands, oak-agave, oak, oak-juniper, and pine-oak woodlands  +
Disturbed sites, mostly coastal  +
Beach sand and nearby thickets, coral soils, salt marshes, hammocks, roadsides  +
Openings in chaparral  +
Open pine forests  +
Openings in chaparral and in pine and oak forests  +
Grassy slopes, openings in pine forests  +
Chaparral, oak woodlands  +
Coastal dunes and beach heads  +
Coastal dunes, sand hills, and beach heads  +
Wet meadows, bogs, muskegs, stream and lake margins, montane to alpine habitats, or ± drier sites of open forests and mountain slopes, various soils, often disturbed areas, roadsides  +
Moist, subalpine meadows and forests to alpine tundra, often disturbed areas  +
Moist to dry habitats, alpine meadows, montane forests, northern prairies, arctic tundra, in gravelly, rocky, and other coarse-textured soils  +
Wet meadows, stream margins, swales, other moist sites, grasslands, steppes, and meadow habitats, slightly alkaline or saline sites, mostly in silts, clays, and other fine-textured soils  +
Mesic to dry meadows, grasslands, sagebrush steppes, open oak or coniferous woodlands, chaparral  +
Moist to dry lowland prairies, coastal forests, open coniferous woodlands  +
Mesic to dry habitats in grasslands, chaparral, oak woodlands, and open pine forests  +
Wet to dry, mostly seasonal habitats in deserts, grasslands, chaparral, steppe, oak woodlands, and open pine forests, often disturbed sites  +
Mesic to dry habitats in deserts, grasslands, and oak woodlands  +
Mesic to dry grasslands, oak woodlands, and coastal scrub-lands  +
Mesic subalpine meadows and forests to alpine tundra and rocky slopes, volcanic or pyroclastic soils  +
Dry habitats, sandy soils, short-grass prairies, sagebrush steppes, pinyon-juniper woodlands, montane meadows, mixed conifer forests  +
Mesic to dry habitats in scrub-lands, chaparral, steppe, and open oak or pine woodlands  +
Lowland prairies  +
Edges, open spaces, and thickets, deciduous or mixed pine-deciduous woods  +
Dry to moist, longleaf pine-oak woods, oak-hickory slopes, roadsides, sand or shell maritime thickets  +
Edges, open spaces and thickets, deciduous or mixed pine-deciduous woods  +
Edges, open spaces, thickets deciduous or mixed woods and thickets in wet places  +
Edges, open spaces, thickets, deciduous or mixed deciduous woods  +
Edges, open spaces, and thickets, deciduous or mixed deciduous woods  +
Edges, open spaces, thickets, in deciduous or mixed deciduous woods  +
Fields, roadsides, waste places  +
Waste places, open woodlands  +
Disturbed sites, roadsides, vacant lots  +
Disturbed sites, roadsides, vacant lots  +
Meadows, herb slopes, moist rock ledges  +
Moist meadows, herb slopes, often near seashores  +
Moist to mesic meadows, herb slopes, sometimes near seashores  +
Meadows  +
Waste ground  +
Moist herb slopes, willow scrub  +
Meadows, moist sand  +
Densely vegetated lake shores  +
Meadows, lawns, ditches, under trees  +
Moist grasslands, flood plains  +
Grasslands, often near sea shores  +
Moist herb slopes  +
Moist meadows, herb slopes, willow scrub, ditches, lawns  +
Dry to wet pine flatwoods, savannas, and bogs  +
Everglades, pinelands  +
Open sites of various habitats, moist bogs, dry to mesic prairies, and dry, upland woods and thickets  +
Seasonally wet to flooded pine flatwoods, savannas, bogs  +
Moist pine flatwoods and savannas, roadside ditches  +
Shallow fresh or brackish water or muddy shores  +
Streams and marshes  +
Stream margins  +
Shallow ponds, stream margins, marshes, and ditches  +
Shallow muddy ponds, stream margins, marshes, and ditches  +
Alkaline soils, mostly on raised sandy hummocks in salt playas and mud flats  +
Roadsides, trails, railroad tracks, stream banks, waste places, fields, shaded woodlands, bluffs, thickets, steep slopes, disturbed fields, floodplains, woods, shaded forest floor  +
Open arid areas, often on sandy or gravelly soils, sometimes on clay or gypsum  +
Open arid areas, usually on sandy or gravelly soils, sometimes on gypsum  +
Open arid areas, usually on sandy or gravelly soils, 100-1200 m  +
Coarse, sandy soil and gravelly river benches  +
Granite sands in open coniferous forest  +
Dry slopes and plains  +
Roadsides and other disturbed areas  +
Clay soils, including serpentine, dry slopes, and open plains  +
Heavy, generally barren, clay soils  +
Sandy, rocky, or clay soils on desert slopes  +
Sandy, rocky, or clay soils on desert slopes and mountains  +
Open, rocky, gravelly slopes  +
Meadows and aspen groves, less commonly on open slopes in mountains  +
Clay soils, including serpentine  +
Clay soils, including serpentine  +
Sandy, rocky soil  +
Swampy meadows and along streams, rarely on wooded slopes  +
Granite sands, on dry slopes and ridges  +
Generally sandy soils on open or shaded slopes  +
Roadsides, meadows, woods, and fields  +
Known only from c coastal plain where it grows on prairies  +
Generally in sandy or rocky soils, woods or plains  +
On calcareous prairies or more infrequently in sandy soils  +
Generally in calcareous soils  +
Usually in sandy or rocky soils, rarely on limestone or in clay, woods and prairies  +
Disturbed sites adjacent to areas where cultivated  +
Widely distributed on moist soils in mountainous and cool regions  +
Winter-wet, shallow soils on rock outcrops, or wet meadows  +
Shallow, lithosolic soils, often dry and sandy  +
Rocky slopes and plains, mountains  +
Serpentine, volcanic, and granitic soil  +
Talus slopes and clay soils, including serpentine, on bald summits and ridges  +
Clay soils, including serpentine  +
On granitic “flat-rocks” of Piedmont and in sand on coastal plains  +
Sandy, rocky soil, Techachapi Mountains and desert slopes, western Mojave Desert, California  +
Serpentine clay soils  +
Dry, clay soils on or near sea cliffs  +
Rocky, sandy, basaltic soil  +
Winter-wet, shallow soils on rock outcrops  +
Plains, hills, and prairies, particularly in limestone soils  +
Sandy soil  +
Heavy, rocky, clay soils, including serpentine  +
Moist, shallow soils  +
Open clay (including serpentine) slopes and flats  +
Sandy or rocky soils on open slopes and flats  +
Serpentine clay  +
Disturbed areas  +
Moist, open slopes, meadows, or stream banks in mountains  +
Meadows and along streams  +
Steep, rocky slopes  +
Dry slopes and ridges of clay or stony soil  +
Grassy, wooded slopes and flats  +
Serpentine clay  +
Heavy clay soils, including serpentine  +
Clay soils, including serpentine, on open or grassy slopes  +
Grassy slopes in heavy clay soils including serpentine  +
Heavy, clay soils on shaded slopes  +
Clay soils, including serpentine  +
Dry, rocky hills and mountains, usually in limestone soils  +
Rocky, sandy, or clay soils  +
Rocky, sandy, or clay soils  +
Apparently restricted to serpentine clays on ridges and peaks  +
Rocky clay, including serpentine soils  +
Drying, clay soils  +
Desert plains and hills  +
Barren, gravelly soils  +
Seasonally wet meadows  +
Wooded, shady slopes  +
Loose rock and talus slopes, alpine ridges and talus  +
Clay soil on grassy slopes  +
Disturbed sites  +
Sandy, rocky, or occasionally clay soils on desert plains and hillsides  +
Heavy, rocky soils, wet meadows, or along streams  +
Disturbed roadsides  +
Granitic sands  +
Roadsides and other disturbed ground  +
Rocky, sandy desert slopes  +
Clay or sandy soils on dry slopes  +
Rocky, clay slopes and talus  +
Shallow, stony, lithosolic soil over dolomitic limestone, hilltops  +
Clay soil on dry hillsides  +
Clay soils, including serpentine  +
Usually sandy soils, plains  +
Rocky margins entire, apex obtuse or acute, slopes and plains  +
Rocky, sandy slopes  +
Rocky slopes, stream banks, and marshy ground, mountains  +
Clay soil on shaded, grassy slopes near coast  +
Sandy, rocky, or clay soils on open slopes and flats  +
Dry, usually grassy areas  +
Sand and gravel deposits along bottom and lower benches of Columbia River  +
Disturbed fields and roadsides  +
Sandy soils, Rio Grande plains  +
Heavy serpentine clay  +
Heavy serpentine clay  +
Roadsides and disturbed areas  +
Wet meadows, rocky or gravelly stream banks and lake shores, circumboreal  +
Barren, gravelly soils, arid interior slopes and ridges well back from Columbia River  +
Heavy, clay soils, including serpentine  +
Serpentine clay soil on talus slopes  +
Soil pockets on schist outcrops  +
Coarse, sandy soils of granitic, calcareous, or basaltic origins  +
Heavy, rocky, clay soils, including serpentine  +
On gneiss “flat-rocks” and sandy soil of Piedmont  +
Often on calcareous soils  +
Dry plains and hills  +
Rocky, gravelly, or clay soils  +
Rocky, gravelly, or clay soils, mountains and scablands  +
Rocky, volcanic soils  +
Dry soil in upland woods  +
Moist ground in rich woods, depressions, streamside bluffs, and colluvial slopes  +
Disturbed sites  +
Roadsides and other disturbed ground  +
Serpentine soil on open hillsides  +
Moist, clay soils, including serpentine, usually along streams  +
Swampy meadows in mountains  +
Rocky areas  +
Disturbed areas often adjacent to agricultural lands  +
Moist soil along cracks and margins of large metamorphic outcrops  +
Moist, mixed-deciduous or coniferous forests  +
Open habitats, roadsides  +
Mostly clay soil, open scrub or waste places  +
Damp alkaline places, alluvial soils, with halophytic vegetation, inland salt marshes, along streams in ravines, ditches, in desert and dry prairie areas  +
Stream banks, moist flood plains, damp depressions, borders of wetlands  +
Stream banks, lake shores, bogs, swamps, margins of wet fields, swales, and roadsides, often forming dense thickets  +
Stream banks, lake shores, margins of wet fields and meadows, bog margins, and muskegs  +
Along edges of ponds and small streams, often in standing water  +
Sandy or rocky stream banks and moist slopes, often in mountain canyons  +
Open, rocky stream banks and adjacent (often rather dry) slopes  +
Stream banks, moist flood plains, lake shores, wet slopes, and sandy, open coasts  +
Stream banks, ditches, edges of sloughs, swampy fields and bogs, and lakeshores  +
Singly or in thickets along streams, lakeshores, coasts, and bog or muskeg margins, or on sandy or gravelly slopes or flats  +
Rocky or sandy coasts, stream banks, lakeshores, and damp, open areas  +
Along gravelly or rocky stream banks, lakeshores, and coasts, on moist rocky slopes, outcrops, in open coniferous woodlands  +
Hammocks, sandy areas, roadsides, and similar places in full sun  +
Open sage scrub  +
Low, desert areas, banks and dry washes, soil and limestone  +
Sunny sandy soil or soil over limestone in dry areas  +
Bare or disturbed soil or silt, roadside banks, calcareous boulders or gravel  +
Sandstone or calcareous rocks, sandy soil in dry sunny sites  +
Rocks, banks, clay, sandy or gravelly soil in deserts, plains or conifer forests  +
Open woodlands, grassy pastures, often sandy soils  +
Disturbed hammocks and thickets  +
Bark of trunks and branches of Acer, Alnus, Chrysolepis, Lithocarpus, Quercus, Picea, Populus, Sambucus, Sequoia, Umbellularia, rock surfaces, usually siliceous  +
Loose or sandy soils in shade to partially sunny, moist, disturbed sites  +
Sandy, wet, disturbed sites  +
Gravel, sand bars, sidewalks  +
Coastal hammocks, thickets, sand bars  +
Sandy beaches, hammocks  +
Ballast ground, swamps, sandy places, limestone near salt water  +
Ponds, ditches, streams, bayous  +
Waste grounds, cleared limestone areas  +
Wet disturbed areas  +
Wet or moist ditches, disturbed areas, stream drainages  +
Disturbed, usually moist areas  +
Disturbed areas  +
Wet, disturbed areas, along streams, brackish sand, coastal marshes  +
Hammocks, pine woodlands, on limestone  +
Roadsides, railways, waste grounds, disturbed sites, grassy areas, fields, sagebrush flats, limestone ledges or bluffs  +
Deserts, rocky areas, disturbed sites, roadsides, fields, meadows, sagebrush flats  +
Waste areas, roadsides  +
Mountain slopes, cliffs, gravel, rocky places  +
Sagebrush areas, fields, roadsides, sandy slopes  +
Rocky soil  +
Sandy areas, sand dunes, riverbanks, disturbed habitats  +
Disturbed habitats, waste places, vacant areas, railroads, streambanks, sandy areas, roadsides, agricultural fields  +
Sandy habitats, sand hills, riverbanks, creeks, lakes, disturbed areas, agricultural fields  +
Freshwater and brackish wetland habitats, coastal marshes, swamps, riverbanks, bayous, canals, ditches, estuaries, lakeshores, hammocks  +
Disturbed habitats: roadsides, riverbanks, railroads, fields, waste places, sandy flats  +
Waste places, fields, roadsides, other disturbed habitats  +
Seasonally moist flats, shores of water bodies, waste places, other disturbed habitats  +
Coastal salt or brackish marshes, edges of sloughs, tidal riverbanks, tidal flats, rarely freshwater semiaquatic habitats  +
Rarely occurs as escapes, persisting near the places of cultivation  +
Open, seasonally wet flats, shores of water bodies, waste places, other disturbed habitats  +
Waste places, other disturbed habitats, mostly at seaports and on ballast  +
Near places of cultivation  +
Weedy areas, ballast heaps, railroads, other disturbed habitats  +
Waste places, disturbed habitats  +
Sandy, gravelly slopes, washes, semideserts, disturbed habitats  +
Coastal dunes, beaches, swamps, marshes, disturbed habitats, such as gardens and fields near coast  +
On ballast  +
Coastal sand dunes, sea beaches  +
Waste places, agricultural and fallow fields, railroads, roadsides, riverbanks, other disturbed habitats  +
Near places of cultivation  +
Waste places, on ballast  +
Semideserts, naturally disturbed habitats  +
Streambanks, disturbed habitats, especially agricultural fields, railroads, waste areas, roadsides  +
Disturbed habitats, coastal areas, near wool-combing mills  +
Disturbed habitats, agricultural fields, railroads, roadsides, waste areas, banks of rivers, lakes, and streams  +
Maritime sand dunes, beaches, mostly on foredunes and at high tide level  +
Banks of rivers, lakes, and streams, disturbed habitats, agricultural fields, railroads, roadsides, waste areas  +
Seasonally wet, disturbed habitats  +
Waste places, fields, roadsides, railroads, barnyards, overgrazed pastures, other disturbed habitats  +
Disturbed habitats  +
Uncommon, casual alien near wool-combing mills  +
Sandy, rocky, and gravelly flats, slopes, canyons, washes, other naturally disturbed habitats  +
Locally escaped from cultivation, disturbed areas  +
Wet areas, such as margins of rivers, ponds, marshes, lakes, and creeks, disturbed habitats, such as agricultural fields, roadsides, and railroads  +
Fields, railroads, lawns, gardens, waste areas, other disturbed habitats  +
Open dry slopes, other naturally disturbed habitats  +
Coastal dunes, beaches, sandy inland areas, weakly saline flats  +
Naturally disturbed habitats, streambanks, canyons, semideserts  +
Usually on sandy or gravelly soils, openings in pinyon-juniper, yellow pine, or spruce-fir forests  +
Escaped or persistent from cultivation in disturbed sites  +
Rotting wood, organic soil, rich fens scattered across boreal zone  +
Roadsides, open fields  +
Coastal bluffs, dunes, beaches  +
Tree trunks, rotten wood, rock, soil, (sometimes salty) swamps to xeric habitats  +
Canyons, sandy flats, dunes  +
Sandy soils, washes, banks  +
Wet to dry soils, disturbed sites  +
Dry, disturbed sites  +
Sandy beaches and strand  +
Seasonally wet clays or sands, scrublands  +
Clays or sandy soils, among lava rocks  +
Waste places, disturbed sites  +
Sandy washes, benches  +
Sandy washes, benches  +
Rocky or sandy washes, benches  +
Sandy and gravelly washes  +
Wet or seasonally wet flats, depressions, alkaline, clay soils, prairies  +
Sandy beaches or strand  +
Sandy washes, benches  +
Seasonally wet, sandy soils  +
Desert washes, ravines  +
Disturbed sites, often wet, alkaline, clay soils  +
Disturbed sites, damp to wet, alkaline soils  +
Desert washes, sandy and gravelly benches, lava talus  +
Seasonally wet clays or sands, disturbed sites  +
Disturbed sites, waste places, damp soils  +
Stream banks and shores, lake shores, mountainsides, dry rocky and grassy slopes (northern shrub-steppe), hillsides, woods, thickets, shaded canyons, moist roadsides  +
Woods, hillsides, roadsides, mountainsides  +
Open woods, rocky banks, shores, calcareous sites  +
Dry to moist woods, mesic mixed hardwoods and pine-hardwoods, fields, thickets, roadsides, circumneutral soil, especially northward  +
Cool woods, mountain slopes, summits, bogs, poor fens, conifer swamps, acidic soil, sandy lake shores, stream banks, rocky ridges, roadside thickets  +
Damp soil of swamps, wet streamheads, bogs, moist to wet thickets, woods  +
Pine savannas, sandhills, roadsides, dry openings in woods, sandy soil  +
Basaltic ledges, cliffs, and bluffs along streams, stony soil, streambeds, stream banks, copses, mountainsides, roadsides  +
Ravines, thickets, barrens, rocky banks, shores, sea cliffs, swamps, wet woods, often calcareous  +
Calcareous shores, gravel beaches, cliffs, ledges, alluvial woods, roadsides  +
Dry, open sites with rocky, gravelly, or sandy soil, calcareous soil  +
Dry woods, bluffs rocky areas and slopes, stream banks, fields, thickets, and sandy areas, sometimes wetlands  +
Swamps, bogs, thickets, shores  +
Dry to moist, deciduous, mixed, and coniferous forests, fields, thickets, roadsides  +
Fields, sand-plain grasslands, heaths, glacial outwash plains, forest openings, disturbed sites, stream shores, among rocks or sand, dry habitats, ditches, swales  +
Dry rocky slopes, canyons, stream banks, mountainsides, foothills, high deserts  +
Dry rocky slopes, canyons, chaparral, mountainsides  +
Margins of woods, river ledges, shorelines, rocky slopes, crevices of open rock faces and cliffs, noncalcareous to slightly calcareous sites  +
Summits and cliffs of low mountains, open woods, woodland clearings, rocky soil, crevices, shores, fields, roadsides, peaty, sandy, or gravelly and, typically, acidic soil  +
Dry rocky slopes, canyons, stream banks, mountainsides, foothills, deserts  +
Moist, often calcareous coniferous forests, thickets, fens, tundra  +
Dry or mesic wooded slopes, meadows, savannas  +
Limestone outcrops/hills, granitic talus slopes, deserts, cliffs, upper Sonoran desert scrub/grassland transition zone  +
Gravelly, sometimes loamy, soil, dry rocky slopes and mesas, deserts, grasslands, openings in oak forests or secondary deciduous forests, disturbed sites, forest clearings and roadsides  +
Dry, rocky or gravelly hills, plains, deserts, grasslands, shrublands, along roads or railroads, limestone soil, silty flats  +
Marshy shores, stream banks, edges of swamps and moist thickets, wet woodlands  +
Thickets, forest edges.  +
Stream and riverbanks, floodplain forests, wet woodland borders, lowland thickets, fencerows.  +
Forest edges, pond margins, stream banks, thickets, disturbed areas.  +
Calcareous soils and gravels on or near limestone outcrops  +
Calcareous, clay, or sandy soils, disturbed habitats  +
Crevices of neutral to acidic rock  +
Seasonal wet crevices of neutral to acidic cliffs  +
Seasonally wet crevices of neutral to acidic cliffs  +
Rocky or sandy soils, ravines, washes, slopes, rock outcrops, canyon walls, cliff faces, usually with other shrubs, especially Ambrosia, Yucca, Ephedra, Atriplex  +
Rocky or sandy soils, flats, washes, slopes, rock outcrops, canyon walls, cliff faces, commonly with Larrea, Yucca, Ambrosia  +
Sunny, saline, often alkaline, seasonally wet places  +
Bark of trees, wet, sheltered niches, crotches, fissures, knotholes on logs, stumps, sometimes rotten, wet rock  +
Dry to moist soil, rock crevices, talus slopes  +
Rock, ledges, ravines, shady canyons, soil  +
Open, disturbed sites  +
Moist to dry roadsides, disturbed meadows, forest edges, stream banks, swales  +
Coastal sage scrub or dune swales  +
Ditch banks, other open sites  +
Dry woods, often with aspen or mixed conifer-hardwood, borders and trails, dunes, fields, roadsides, other open, often disturbed sites  +
Tamaulipan thorn scrub, Chihuahuan desert scrub, sparse grasslands, oak and juniper woodlands, creosotebush flats, sedimentary substrates including limestone [and gypsum in Mexico], usually not on steep slopes, rocky to gravelly soils  +
Tamaulipan thorn scrub, plains and low hills, sandy, loamy, silty, or gravelly soils [rarely on shale]  +
Open, dry or vernally moist slopes, flats, drainages, shallow rocky to deep sandy or clay soils (often over serpentine or basalt), sometimes disturbed sites (burns, road beds)  +
Sandy soils, chaparral bordering oak woodlands, under shrubs  +
Wet acidic or basic rock  +
Rock, alluvium, edges of snow melt areas  +
Acidic rocks  +
Acidic rock  +
Acidic rock faces, occasionally thin soil  +
Wet rocks in streams, snow flushes, seeping outcrops  +
Rock or soil in streams  +
Siliceous rock, cliffs, boulders  +
Neutral to acidic boulders, cliffs and walls, generally wet sites  +
Dry rock outcrops  +
Acidic rock in snow beds  +
Calcareous rock in Arctic and subarctic areas  +
Open, wet sites, bogs, fens, margins of pools, along boggy shores  +
Sphagnum peat bogs, acid swamps, margins of pools throughout boreal forest and arctic  +
Rocky, open habitats on tundra  +
Open, grassy slopes  +
Wet meadows  +
Open, grassy meadows, sandy or gravelly open soils, often in disturbed areas  +
Open areas with sandy, gravelly soil in grassland, shrub, forest, and tundra communities  +
Desert, arid scrub, dry sandy to rocky soil  +
Prairies, grassy slopes, frequently in rocky areas  +
Rock slides of metamorphics, whitish ash, subalpine and alpine ridges, rock and talus slides, disintegrated volcanic rock  +
Terrestrial on open to lightly shaded, rocky slopes and in hammocks and pine woods, often on limestone  +
Lightly shaded limestone outcrops of the Edwards Plateau  +
Rare around exposed to lightly shaded solution holes and limestone sinks  +
Deciduous woods, often in calcareous soils  +
Mixed woods, often in association with both conifers and deciduous trees  +
Open grasslands, prairies, hillsides, often limy substrate, also woods over thin shale  +
Damp thickets, meadows, wet prairies, lake shores, streamsides, clearings, occasionally swampy areas  +
Dry prairies, barrens, pastures, meadows, rocky, open woods  +
Prairies, dry, open woods, pastures, roadsides  +
Open to deep woods  +
Gravelly slopes, dry rocky ledges  +
Moist, limestone bluffs and ledges  +
Moist, rocky crevices  +
Shaded woods, wooded slopes  +
Damp, rich woods  +
Shaded woods, subalpine ridges  +
Tundra, slopes, ridges, limestone outcrops, and screes  +
Open forests, grassy slopes, often rocky areas, also moist prairie depressions, coulees, sandhill shrubland  +
Rocky slopes, meadows  +
Talus slopes, canyons  +
Moist slopes, grassy areas, thickets  +
Forest margins, alpine meadows  +
Gravelly, rocky slopes, moist meadows  +
Dry, open ledges and slopes  +
Marshes, sphagnum bogs  +
Shaded, moist woods, open hillsides  +
Streamsides, meadows, rocky slopes  +
Prairies, open slopes, sometimes open woods or granite outcrops in woods  +
Shaded, moist woods  +
Damp, frequently acidic, wooded hillsides  +
Moist, open woods, thickets, clearings, streamsides, occasionally swampy areas  +
Thickets, moist woods, meadows, slopes  +
Rocky slopes, streamsides  +
Riparian areas, moist cliffs and ledges  +
Dry woods, sandy ridges, grasslands  +
Dry, rocky, open woods, thickets, river banks  +
Wet, alkaline, saline, and coastal marsh areas  +
Roadsides, disturbed ground.  +
Forests, woodlands  +
Open ridges and slopes, on metamorphics  +
Sandy washes, dry slopes, chaparral, pine-oak-juniper woodlands, montane coniferous forests  +
Wet substrates, brackish to fresh, in pond borders, tidally influenced stream banks, banks of estuaries and lakes  +
Dryish sandy substrates, dry hammocks  +
Dry, open shrublands  +
Dry, open shrublands, deciduous forests  +
Usually weedy in disturbed areas, fence rows, agricultural fields  +
Arid habitats, disturbed sites, sometimes open, sometimes shady  +
Disturbed sites, roadsides, agricultural fields  +
Desert habitats  +
Deciduous forests, dry, open shrublands  +
Forming deep green cushions on calcareous and noncalcareous rock, sandstone walls, rock ledges, exposed moist crevices, wet areas  +
Fissures in rock, calcareous and noncalcareous sandstone  +
Calcareous and noncalcareus rock, wet areas, spray of falls  +
Acidic seepy or damp soil, soil over rock, ledges  +
Acidic seepy or damp soil, soil over rock, ledges  +
Tree bark, at base, soil, rock  +
Crevices between boulders  +
Deciduous forests, calcareous rock, bark of trees  +
Base or bark of deciduous trees, soil, fallen logs, deciduous forests, open spaces, secondary forests, vertical calcareous rock, occasionally acidic  +
Tree trunks (generally 1-2 m above base), basic and acidic rock, montane deciduous forests  +
Bark of trees, deciduous forests  +
Bark of trees, deciduous forests  +
Mesic calcareous environments of montane deciduous forests, limestone rock or vertical walls, epiphytic  +
Disturbed areas, fencerows, roadsides  +
Disturbed areas, fencerows, roadsides, thickets  +
Dry to moist alpine tundra  +
Dry meadows and aspen forest openings  +
Moist alkaline basins in sagebrush steppe  +
Openings in dry coniferous forests  +
Subalpine limestone talus  +
Moist subalpine-alpine willow thickets in the Rocky and Cascade mountains, the Sierra Nevada and mountains of the Great Basin  +
Subalpine-alpine limestone talus  +
Sagebrush steppe, plains, foothills of mountains  +
Dry slopes on tundra  +
Seasonally dry basins in foothills of mountains, often associated with sagebrush flats  +
Arctic and alpine tundra, on or near dry rocky outcrops or sand ridges  +
Arctic and alpine tundra, on or near dry rocky outcrops or sand ridges  +
Arctic and alpine tundra, on dry rocky outcrops, fell fields, or gravelly frost boils  +
Dry lower montane to montane coniferous forests, usually in ± thick duff under Pinus ponderosa  +
Pastures, dry fields, openings in woodlands and forests, and rock barrens  +
Pastures, dry fields, openings in deciduous woodlands and coniferous forests. and rock barrens  +
Pastures, dry fields, openings in woodlands and forests, and rock barrens and dry lake shores  +
Pastures, dry fields, openings in woodlands and forests, and rock barrens  +
Protected alpine and subalpine sites, gravelly or sandy soils near conifers at timberline  +
Moist, open, meadows and drainages, lower montane, ponderosa pine zone  +
Semidry meadows and drainages, lower montane, ponderosa pine zone  +
Moist forests, slopes and tops of ridges under Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, Engelmann spruce or Gambel oaks, openings in the forests  +
Dry, rocky to moist alpine tundra  +
Moist open areas, flood plains of streams, margins of alkaline depressions, lower montane to subalpine (subarctic)  +
Moist tundra, disturbed margins of solifluction lobes, unstable, gravelly slopes  +
Moist tundra, often on disturbed margins of solifluction lobes or on unstable, gravelly slopes  +
Plains, grasslands, pastures, and open woodlands  +
Clearings, fields, roadsides, and open deciduous woods  +
Clearings, fields, roadsides, and open woods  +
Prairies, pastures, roadsides, mountain parks, open deciduous woods, and drier coniferous forests, usually ponderosa or lodgepole pine  +
Dry, open, deciduous woodlands, tops of banks, ridges, and bluffs, sandstone formations, slopes in openings in woodlands  +
Moist subalpine-alpine meadows, snow basins, margins of tarns, streams, or run-off from snow masses  +
Limestone barrens, serpentine  +
Alluvial soils in moist willow thickets subject to intermittent flooding along streams, montane to subalpine zone  +
Moist, cool, montane and subalpine coniferous forests and roadcuts in forests  +
Dry to moist habitats, tundra, rock outcrops, fields, meadows, forests, savannas, and roadcuts, other similarly disturbed places  +
Dry to moist habitats, tundra, rock outcrops, fields, meadows, forests, savannas, and roadcuts, other similarly disturbed places  +
Dry to moist open habitats, usually on rock outcrops or barrens  +
Dry to moist habitats, tundra, rock outcrops, fields, meadows, forests, savannas, and roadcuts, other similarly disturbed places  +
Open slopes and dry meadows, lower montane to montane, or subalpine zone, usually with big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata  +
Talus areas on limestone ridge at treeline in the subalpine zone  +
Slopes or stream banks in moist, rich, deciduous woodlands, forests, sometimes forest openings  +
Dry, often sagebrush (Artemisia) covered hillsides and dry margins around seasonally moist depressions in sagebrush steppe of the Great Basin and Columbia Plateau  +
Dry, open coniferous woods or barren slopes on serpentine  +
Sagebrush steppe to open, dry, coniferous montane forests to subalpine meadows  +
Devonian shale barrens and argillaceous soils derived from them, open deciduous woods and fields  +
Disturbed sites, abandoned plantings  +
Disturbed sites, clearings, fields, roadsides  +
Cultivated and often persisting after abandonment, rarely escaping  +
Disturbed ground.  +
Bark, decorticated wood, on Quercus, siliceous rock, soil, humic soil, full sun or partial shade  +
Trunks and branches of Acer, Alnus, Populus, Prunus, Quercus, conifers, dead branches, snags, decorticated or decomposing logs, siliceous rock, soil, humus  +
Dry, gravelly outwash fans, talus slopes, roadsides  +
Sandy, gravelly limestone outwash fans, or calcareous silty soils, gypsum  +
Calcareous clay and clayey shales  +
Calcareous clays and shales, sometimes on gypsum  +
Gypseous shaley clay  +
Moist, exposed, sandy or silty soil of depressions, river and stream banks in montane coniferous forest regions, subalpine regions, mountains, and northern latitudes  +
Rock crevices, cliff faces, on igneous or volcanic substrates (mostly rhyolite)  +
Fields, usually on sandy soil, mossy and grassy sites, moist shade, gravelly roadsides, shady, bare patches in lawns, shallow soil pockets on rocky seashores, meadows, hillsides  +
Fields, sandy places  +
Vernally moist grasslands, chaparral, woodlands, clearings, rocky outcrops, cliffs, sandy beaches, waste ground, roadsides  +
Coastal shrublands, bluffs, saline sands  +
Soil, clay, along creeks or trails in places subject to inundation, rarely among other mosses  +
Sand or sandy clay, open scrub oak woodlands, mesquite savannas, fields, disturbed sites, roadsides  +
Sand and gravel bars, limestone soils, Larrea flats, mesquite savannas, roadsides, disturbed sites  +
Sand and sandy loam, black loam, silt, caliche, rocky limestone soils, stream bottoms, oak-juniper openings, mesquite pastures, roadsides, fencerows, disturbed sites  +
Open sites, often calcareous, often with scrubby oaks  +
Sandy or gravelly soils, often in matorral and scrublands  +
Sand, sandy loam, sandy clay, silt, gravel, river terraces, oak woodlands, mesquite savannas, fields, roadsides  +
Sand dunes near beaches, coastal sands, Rio Grande plains  +
Limestone slopes, subalpine valleys, wet cliffs, ridges, fine gravel saturated by snowmelt  +
Moist, deciduous, upland to swampy forests  +
Dung, animal remains  +
Roadsides, gravelly stream terraces, interfan alluvium, dunes, flats, rocky slopes, lava beds, grasslands, creosote scrub, Chihuahuan desert scrub of Flourensia-Larrea, mesquite, oak chaparral, oak-juniper woodlands  +
Quiet ponds  +
Disturbed places, coastal bluffs, margins of coastal wetlands, 0-100 m  +
Bogs, alluvial and upland rich woods  +
Cliff walls and talus slopes, usually on shale  +
Open woods, meadows, shores, and rock outcrops  +
Shaded or open woods, often around cliffs, rock outcrops, and forest edges  +
Rocky places in canyons, mostly along streams  +
Damp places in canyons  +
Open rocky slopes  +
Rocky slopes or near streams in open woodland or herbland  +
Rocky slopes or near streams, in open woodland or herbland  +
Rocky slopes or near streams, in open woodland or herbland  +
Open rocky places  +
Moist coniferous forests, especially along streams  +
Damp rocky places  +
Moist mountain meadows and alpine slopes  +
Mesic woods or shrublands  +
Mesic woods or shrublands  +
Dripping cliffs  +
Rocky places in limestone areas, usually subalpine  +
Rock crevices  +
Near streams or in damp rocky places in canyons  +
Seepy rock walls of canyons  +
Open rocky places, alpine or subalpine  +
Cliffs and rocky slopes, subalpine and alpine  +
Rocky slopes, woodlands, or meadows  +
Moist places in dry woodlands and shrublands  +
Disturbed habitats  +
Sandy beaches, gravel, flats of streambeds  +
Gravelly slopes, forests, gravel bars, high-elevation scree and talus, roadsides  +
Cliffs, ledges, thickets, stream and river banks, woods, limestone crevices and bluffs, sandstone hills and outcrops, serpentine rocks and barrens, shale, talus, sand dunes  +
Sand dunes, sand bars, tussocks, gravel, tundra, volcanic ash, stream terraces  +
Sandy areas along roadsides, stream banks, railroad tracks and embankments, open pastures, grassy flats, fields, prairies, floodplains, woods, lawns, limestone ledges and crevices, bluffs, shale and serpentine barrens, gravel, sandstone  +
Serpentine slopes, rocky hillsides  +
Crevices of limestone rocks, along streams, calcareous alpine meadows, Salix scrub on slopes with scree  +
Rocky hillsides and bluffs, grassy hillsides, slopes  +
Rare garden escape  +
Open woods, rocky bluffs, steep banks, canyon margins  +
Rocky slopes, crevices, and ledges, meadows, moist banks and grounds, granitic soil, wooded slopes  +
Open slopes, alpine meadows, cliffs, ridge crests  +
Stream banks, roadsides  +
Serpentine scrap and slopes, red serpentinized soil  +
Moist shaded banks, slopes, rocky canyon walls, talus, basaltic bluffs  +
Alpine and subalpine meadows and slopes, open woods, steep slopes and cliffs, mossy mats, dry or moist slopes and hillsides, ridge crests  +
Talus slopes near glacier  +
Moist granitic soil, rocky hillsides, chaparrals, steep banks  +
Rocky wooded slopes, shady stream banks, limestone ledges and bluffs  +
Ravines, pastures, cliffs, calcareous talus, dolomite glades, rich woods, bluffs, rocky ledges  +
Bluffs, cliffs, ledges, rocky hillsides, open woods, bottom lands, gravel bars, meadows, streamsides, upland prairies, grassy swales, hillsides, stream bottoms  +
Terrestrial along stream banks in woods  +
Riverine forests and oak parklands along seasonally moist waterways  +
Open forests, rocky slopes, ravines, foothills, and shores  +
Rough, stony hills, mountain slopes, calcareous ledges  +
Coniferous forests, especially with jack or lodgepole pine.  +
Coniferous forests generally with fir.  +
Coniferous forests with southwestern white pine.  +
Coniferous forests with southwestern white pine.  +
Coniferous forests with sugar pine or western white pine.  +
Coniferous forests with ponderosa or Jeffrey pine.  +
Coniferous forests, especially with western larch or mountain hemlock.  +
Closed-cone pine forests.  +
Coniferous forests, especially with blue or Engelmann spruce.  +
Coniferous forests, especially with western white pine.  +
Coniferous and mixed forests, especially with digger pine.  +
Coniferous forests, especially closed-cone pine forests with knobcone pine.  +
Pinyon-juniper woodlands.  +
Coniferous forests with Douglas fir.  +
Coniferous and mixed forests with Chihuahua pine.  +
Spruce forests within 500 m of coast and inland bogs, often within 2 km of lakes and rivers.  +
Coniferous forests with ponderosa pine.  +
Common on moist to wet soil, mud and sand around temporary pools, along ditches and roadsides, and in fields, occasional on sandstone and limestone outcrops  +
Uncommon on moist to dry soil along roadsides, in fields, rarely on rock  +
Uncommon to rare on moist open sandy or loamy soil, along roadsides and in grassy often disturbed areas  +
Uncommon on moist open sandy or loamy soil, along roadsides and in grassy often disturbed areas, or crevices and pockets in rock  +
Common on moist open sandy, loamy, or clay soils, mud, and rock outcrops in a wide variety of open habitats, including roadsides, ditches, meadows, prairies, sand dunes, and creeks  +
Common to uncommon on dry to moist sand, soil, in clearings, along roadsides, creek banks, open forests, pastures, often on soil of limestone and sandstone outcrops  +
Open, coastal, wet, brackish habitats on clay, sand, gravel or rocks, upper tidal marshes, brackish coastal meadows, coastal herbaceous or heath tundras, sloughs, coastal rocks, flood plains and bars at mouths of streams  +
Open, coastal, wet, brackish habitats on clay, sand, gravel, or rocks, beaches near tideline, coastal dunes, beach meadows, carex salt marshes, estuarine marshes and flood plains, coastal tundra  +
Waste places, roadsides, fields, forest clearings  +
Waste places, roadsides, fields, forest clearings  +
Waste places, roadsides, fields, forest clearings  +
Siliceous rock  +
Siliceous rock or soil  +
Siliceous rock or soil  +
Barren shales that are heavily gypsiferous or otherwise chemically unusual (borate-bearing, lithium-bearing), creosote bush zone  +
Barren, heavily gypsiferous shales, creosote bush zone  +
Barren, calcareous, scree slopes and weakly gypsiferous shales interbedded with marine limestones, creosote bush and blackbrush zones  +
Chaparral, edges of open forests  +
Chaparral, open, closed-cone conifer forests  +
Closed-cone conifer chaparral on serpentine soil  +
Closed-cone conifer chaparral on serpentine soil  +
Chaparral, open forests  +
Chaparral, open woodlands  +
Chaparral, gaps and margins of conifer forests along coast, sometimes extending inland, open areas around rock outcrops  +
Island chaparral, open, closed-cone conifer forests  +
Maritime chaparral and open conifer forests  +
Maritime and marginal interior chaparral and closed-cone conifer forests  +
Maritime chaparral and closed-cone conifer forests on siliceous shales  +
Maritime chaparral on volcanic soils  +
Maritime chaparral and coastal bluffs, historic stable dunes  +
Maritime chaparral, grasslands on alluvial and fluvial soils  +
Acidic marine sands  +
Steep, rocky slopes and bluffs near ocean  +
Maritime chaparral, serpentine soils  +
Chaparral on decomposing granites  +
Interior chaparral chiefly on granitic rocks  +
Maritime chaparral and closed-cone conifer forests on sandstone coastal bluffs  +
Chaparral, often on steep, rocky slopes  +
interior chaparral on gabbroic soils  +
Rocky slopes, chaparral, woodlands  +
Chaparral, closed-cone conifer forests  +
Serpentine chaparral and open forests on sandstone  +
Maritime chaparral and closed-cone conifer forests on stable dunes and sandstone uplands  +
Chaparral, open conifer forests  +
Maritime chaparral on sandstone outcroppings  +
Island chaparral and woodlands  +
Open, subalpine forests on soils derived from gabbro  +
Chaparral, open forests  +
Chaparral, upper foothill woodlands  +
Chaparral, foothill woodlands  +
Chaparral, foothill woodlands  +
Foothill woodlands, interior chaparral, sometimes in open conifer forests  +
Upper foothill woodlands, open conifer forests  +
Chaparral or along forest edges, often along ridge crests  +
Chaparral openings in mixed conifer forests  +
Chaparral on upland serpentine barrens  +
Maritime chaparral, coastal prairie on serpentine soils  +
Maritime chaparral  +
Maritime chaparral  +
Maritime chaparral on sandy soils near coast  +
Exposed acidic, whitish, clay soils (oxisols)  +
High-elevation forests and montane chaparral  +
High-elevation forests and montane chaparral  +
Shallow shale soils in chaparral and foothill woodlands  +
Chaparral, open forests  +
Podsol soils in pygmy pine forests  +
Maritime chaparral, closed-cone conifer forests  +
Chaparral, open, closed-cone conifer forests  +
Knobcone pine chaparral, siliceous shale ridges  +
Maritime chaparral on volcanic uplands  +
Sandstone outcrops  +
Maritime chaparral on deep to shallow, sandy soils or sandstone outcroppings  +
Maritime chaparral, gaps in open forests  +
Chaparral on desert edges  +
Montane chaparral and forest openings  +
Mountain chaparral and forests  +
Maritime chaparral on siliceous shale soils  +
Chaparral, open forests  +
Chaparral, open forests  +
Chaparral, open forests  +
Sand dunes, maritime chaparral, open, closed-cone conifer forests  +
Open pine forests, pinyon-juniper woodlands, chaparral  +
Maritime chaparral on deep, sandy soils  +
Chaparral of granite uplands  +
Chaparral, margins of open forests  +
Maritime chaparral on sandy soils  +
Sandstone uplands in maritime chaparral or closed-cone conifer forests near coast  +
Chaparral, open conifer forests  +
Chaparral, on or near serpentine  +
Maritime chaparral in stabilized dunes or on coastal uplands  +
Maritime chaparral on dacite buttes  +
Maritime chaparral on coastal uplands  +
Maritime chaparral on stabilized dunes or coastal uplands  +
Coastal dunes, open, acidic temperate and boreal forests, high montane on acidic, sandy, or rocky soils  +
Maritime chaparral, open, closed-cone conifer forests  +
Island chaparral, open forests  +
Chaparral, open forests  +
Chaparral, open forests  +
Chaparral, open forests  +
Roadsides, old fields, other disturbed habitats  +
Roadsides, urban waste places  +
Roadsides, waste places, especially in sandy soils near coasts  +
Tundra, gravelly beach ridges, lichen heaths, open, boggy, coniferous woods, dry, wind-swept and snow-free fellfields in arctic and alpine tundra  +
Rocky and gravelly, arctic or alpine tundra, often in calcareous soils, coastal limestone heaths, swampy woods  +
Acidic soil of suburban and urban woodlands and hardwood hammocks  +
Roadsides, scrub, near villages, edges of fields, along coasts  +
Acidic soil  +
Open woodlands, limestone slopes and outcrops  +
Moist, calcareous gravels and rock crevices  +
Forests, limestone outcrops, moist hummocks, dunes  +
Forests, stream banks  +
Crevices of cliffs and bare walls  +
Gravelly, moist, montane areas, open alpine woods  +
Igneous soil on cliffs and ledges  +
Boggy meadows, freshwater marshes  +
Open, dry to slightly moist sand or gravel  +
Roadsides, open, sandy or rocky, disturbed sites  +
Roadsides, open, sandy or rocky, disturbed sites  +
Sphagnum bogs, coniferous swamps, calcareous treed to open fens, and moist, acid, sandy meadows  +
Dry plains and low hills, road and field margins  +
Waste places, roadsides, fields, beaches, dunes, coastal plains  +
Pastures and waste ground  +
Precipitous slopes  +
Fields, pastures, hills  +
Arid plains and mountains  +
Dry valleys and plains, especially around sand dune areas  +
Dry flats and slopes, stabilized dunes, washes, sandy or granitic soil  +
Washes and outwash plains, deserts  +
Prairies, slopes, and eastern foothills of the Laramie and Rocky mountains  +
Waste places, often a weed of roadsides, dooryards, fallow fields  +
Dry desert ranges  +
Dry foothills and slopes  +
Dry, rocky soil, full sun  +
Open slopes and foothills, full sun  +
Disturbed soil, often a weed of fields, roadways, embankments, intermountain plains  +
Dry slopes and embankments, foothills  +
Dry hills, pinyon-juniper zone  +
Foothills and adjacent high plains  +
Prairies, foothills and mesas  +
Coastal plains and westward  +
Arid slopes and valleys  +
Prairies and foothills  +
Disturbed sites  +
Calcareous cliffs and ledges  +
Rocky slopes and cliffs, usually on granitic or volcanic substrates  +
Sheltered cracks and ledges on canyon walls, restricted to rocks of volcanic origin in the flora  +
Calcareous cliffs and ledges  +
Rocky slopes and cliffs, usually on calcareous or volcanic substrates  +
Rocky slopes and cliffs, usually on calcareous or volcanic substrates  +
Rocky limestone hillsides and cliffs  +
Desert scrub, rocky soils.  +
Bluestem-grama grasslands, oak woodlands, calcareous, often rocky, clay or loam soils.  +
Open cactus hammocks, pinelands, mixed forests, rocky and sandy soils, limestone.  +
Shortgrass grasslands or open shrublands on whitish, clay soils.  +
Desert scrub, rocky soils.  +
Desert scrub, rocky soils, basaltic hills.  +
Scrub, pinyon-juniper woodlands, limestone-derived, rocky soils, damp zones near lakes.  +
Pine-oak forests, desert scrub, grasslands, limestone, sandstone, and clay soils.  +
Desert scrub, rocky soils.  +
Flats, swamps, prairies, mesquite-yucca short grass communities, rocky hills, sandy soils, limestone.  +
Oak woodlands and forests, grasslands, sandy soils.  +
Desert scrub, sandy, rocky, calcareous soils.  +
Grasslands, oak woodlands, loamy to clayey, calcareous, often rocky, soils.  +
Dry, open sandy flats, edges of playas, gravelly washes, riverbanks  +
Limestone areas, mountains  +
Alkaline flats, canyons, meadows  +
Sulphur streams, tinajas  +
Saline flats, playas, swales, sandy areas, river margins  +
Low valleys, saline soils on mudflats, edges of playas  +
Chihuahuan desert scrub, low, rocky hills of limestone chips  +
Mesic to wet deciduous woods, thickets, and bottoms  +
Moist to dry deciduous woods and thickets, bottoms, swamps, and bogs.  +
Sandy soil in grassland communities, and in pine-oak or juniper woodlands  +
Along streams, in forest thickets, chaparral  +
Waste places, roadsides, ballast  +
Rocky slopes, especially on limestone, occasionally river bottoms  +
Riverbanks, hillsides, chaparral  +
Forests, often on dissected uplands and rugged, rocky slopes, Cumberland and Blue Ridge mountains  +
Hammocks  +
Wet Caribbean-type lowlands  +
Moist, sandy soils  +
Mesic forests  +
Alluvial soils along rivers and streams  +
Rocky slopes  +
Rocky slopes  +
Disturbed roadsides, vacant lots, citrus groves, railroads, ballasts  +
Maritime rocks, cliffs, sandy bluffs, sandy dunes  +
Sand dunes, gravel pavements  +
Maritime rocks, cliffs  +
Gravelly tundras, flood plains, lakes and seashores, alpine meadows  +
Fields, moist stream banks, roadsides, ditches, disturbed sites, open woods, along railroads, shallow ponds, marshes, waste places  +
Sandy pine woods and clearings, often in damp soils, chiefly on Coastal Plain  +
Alpine slopes and ridges to Arctic tundra  +
Alpine slopes and subalpine meadows  +
Serpentine soils, conifer forests  +
Moist meadows and conifer forests, stream banks, late snow-melt areas, often montane to subalpine  +
Conifer forests to subalpine meadows  +
Open forests, meadows, slopes  +
Chaparral, oak and pine forests  +
Prairies and grasslands to montane conifer forests  +
Dry, exposed, rocky, alpine slopes, sometimes subalpine meadows  +
Alpine meadows, tundras, and calcareous rocky outcrops  +
Sea-cliffs, limestone barrens, hornblende schists and dry schistose talus in alpine areas  +
Moist areas, stream banks, gravel bars, to subalpine meadows  +
Moist areas, along stream banks, snow-melt areas, montane to alpine meadows  +
Relatively moist, montane conifer forests to subalpine meadows  +
Coastal tundra to alpine slopes  +
Dry to mesic, open montane slopes, open woodlands, stream gravels, shorelines, calcareous rocky outcrops, to lowland Arctic tundra  +
Montane coniferous forests to alpine, usually moist areas, stream banks or late snow-melt areas  +
Exposed tundra slopes and calcareous rock slides  +
Moist meadows and conifer forests, stream banks, late snow-melt areas, montane to subalpine  +
Coniferous forests, meadows, rocky slopes  +
Moist meadows and conifer forests, stream banks, late snow-melt areas, montane to subalpine  +
Open conifer forests to alpine meadows  +
Dry to mesic, exposed, rocky alpine slopes and ridges or alpine meadows  +
Prairies and grasslands to montane conifer forests  +
Usually serpentine soils, open, dry oak–conifer forests, disturbed areas  +
Coastal tundra to alpine slopes  +
Open, often disturbed, oak-pine forests  +
Open, rocky subalpine to alpine  +
Poorly drained, acidic loamy sands, savannas, open pinewoods  +
Edges of woods, pastures, roadsides  +
Wet or mucky soils, along streams, swamps, woodlands  +
Dry sand ridges, pine-oak woodlands  +
Wet, sandy woods, lowlands, savannas, roadsides  +
Wet prairies and pastures, usually in boggy areas in north  +
Open woods  +
Shaded, wet areas of hillside seepages, thickets, and swamps  +
Disturbed sites, sandy soils  +
Swamps, wet thickets, peatland pocosins, bogs, fens, wet pine flatwoods, margins of freshwater wetlands, beaver ponds, mixed loblolly pine, Magnolia virginiana-Rhus vernix-swamps, black gum swamps  +
Swamps, bogs, wet thickets, margins of ponds and lakes, beaver ponds, woods, moist high-elevation forests, rock outcrops  +
Mineral or humid soil, slopes of ravines, bark at tree bases  +
Waste places  +
Widely cultivated, persisting from plantings, disturbed areas  +
Well-drained soils, flood plains, gravel stream banks, roadsides, dry, rocky slopes, forest openings, alpine and arctic tundras  +
Open areas, fellfield tundra  +
Moist waste areas, sandy soils  +
Rocky sedimentary soils, high valleys, mountain slopes  +
Clay soils of alkaline basins and valleys, occasionally on outwash plains of mountains  +
Rocky soils of igneous origin  +
Disturbed habitats, margins of vernal pools, desert flats, usually clay or silty soils  +
Deserts, sandy or alkaline soils, rock outcrops  +
Open meadows, usually on well-drained soils  +
River terraces, tundra  +
Coastal scrub, dry foothills  +
Open meadows, usually moist soils, sometimes sandy or rocky habitats  +
Sandy soils, arid regions  +
Gravel soils, mountain meadows, stream banks  +
Sandy loam soils, often along streams  +
Wet mountain meadows, stream banks, rocky areas with late-lying snows  +
Open sites, usually sandy soils, wooded areas, grasslands, railroads  +
Meadows, shaded sites, along drainages  +
Open meadows and fields, desert scrub, moist drainages, roadsides  +
Open prairies, dunes, sandy soils  +
Open coniferous forests, mid to upper montane  +
Fields, meadows, dry grasslands, steppes, usually stony, well-drained soils  +
Talus slopes or tundra  +
Arctic and alpine tundra, interior mountains  +
Rocky ridges and slopes  +
Arctic and alpine tundra and sandy slopes  +
Dry, gravelly stream banks, grassy flats, forested areas, dry hillsides  +
Subalpine and alpine meadows, rocky soils  +
Alkaline flats, grasslands, barren areas, high plains  +
Desert drainages, sandy soils  +
Mountains, usually in loamy soils  +
Open meadows, mountain slopes  +
Disturbed roadsides, open meadows, rocky slopes  +
Mountain slopes, rocky soils  +
Talus slopes, alpine and subalpine drainages  +
Rocky slopes, often fog-shrouded hillsides  +
Coastal, arctic, subalpine to alpine habitats, boreal forests, moist soils  +
Shallow soils, desert valleys, exposed mountain slopes  +
Coarse taluses, alkaline soils, erosion gullies  +
Ravines, coastal areas, sandy soils  +
Rocky swales, dry meadows, alkaline mud flats  +
Alpine meadows  +
High plains, grasslands  +
Disturbed areas, valleys, shaded thickets  +
Barren clay and gravelly soils  +
Rocky or sandy soils of coastal beaches  +
Fine-textured soils of gypsum or shale  +
Dry rocky scablands, volcanic plains  +
Clay soils of mountain meadows  +
Steppes, alkaline meadows, stony slopes  +
Alpine meadows, protected areas, bases of rocks  +
Open calcareous gravelly slopes in tundra or heath, sandy slopes above high tide  +
Grasslands and barren areas on high plains  +
Moist open slopes, rocky meadows, streamsides, woodlands, late-lying snowfields  +
Sandy soils, coastal strand  +
Coastal habitats, often along roads or drainages  +
Arctic and alpine tundra, sandy, rocky slopes near shorelines  +
Loose sandy soils of valleys and foothills  +
Deep, well-drained (usually sandy) soils in valley bottoms, lower montane slopes, along drainages  +
Montane meadows, usually in rocky soils, sometimes in forested areas  +
Rocky or fine-grained soils, cold-desert basins to high plateaus, foothills  +
Shallow rocky soils, grasslands  +
Deep loam soils, usually igneous in origin  +
Sandy or loamy soils, forested areas, coastal strands, roadsides  +
Salt marshes, depressions in alkali sage scrub  +
Moist to wet ravines, rocky ledges, avalanche tracks, stream banks, forest edges and openings  +
Rich woods, stream banks, north-facing roadsides, seeps, ditches  +
Rich woods, limestone bluffs  +
Flats, gravel banks, arroyos, pine-oak woodlands  +
Understory of deciduous (rarely coniferous) forests  +
Understory of conifer forests, usually in mesic or wet places  +
Rocky slopes in dry conifer or oak forests  +
Wet places, usually near creeks, in understory of conifer forests  +
Understory of dry or mesic forests, or exposed rocky slopes or roadcuts  +
Understory of Abies forests and open boulder fields in Tsuga forests near timberline  +
Usually under translucent rocks in exposed situations  +
Sands or sandy loams, upland oak-pineland, pastures, disturbed sandy sites, mostly in longleaf pine-turkey oak systems  +
Sands and sandy peats or loams of yellow sandhills, sandy fields and pastures, open longleaf pine-turkey oak woods and savannas  +
Sands or sandy peats or loams of rises in pine savanna, pine flatwoods, or sandhills, sandy fields, and pastures  +
White and yellow sand ridges, mostly in oak-pine woods, scrub, coastal dunes, and hammock edges  +
Sands, sandy loams, or sandy alluvium of rich woods, alluvial terraces, and upland dry woods  +
Sandy peat of pine-palmetto flats, savannas, low sandy fields, and low sand ridges  +
Moist sands and sandy peat of pine-palmetto flats, savannas, low fields  +
Sands of ancient coastal dunes and adjacent open-wooded hammocks, flatwoods  +
Mesic woods, often alluvial sites, fencerows  +
Waste places, abandoned gardens  +
Waste places, open forests, roadsides  +
Fields, fencerows, roadsides, disturbed areas  +
Waste places, abandoned gardens  +
Roadsides, fields, waste places  +
Dry rocky slopes among boulders, grassy slopes with oaks, pines, junipers.  +
Brushy, dry, calcareous slopes.  +
Rocky outcrops and crevices (not serpentine), moist to dry, shaded slopes and cliffs  +
Slopes, crevices, rocky outcrops, often on serpentine, sometimes in chaparral  +
Shaded limestone boulders, cliff ledges, grottoes, sinkholes  +
Crevices in limestone  +
Mainly epiphytic on old sloping tree trunks in shady forests  +
Acidic rocks, usually on steep ledges  +
Low limestone boulders and ledges in deep moist woods  +
Moist, rocky ravines, terrestrial among and at bases of rocks  +
Conglomerate boulders  +
Sinkholes, limestone rocks in shady hammocks, masonry  +
Crevices in sandstone or other acidic rocks  +
Shaded rocky slopes, wet ledges, often in protected places  +
Cliffs, ledges, and boulders of sandstone and other acidic rocks  +
Forest floor or on rocks, often invading masonry and disturbed soils  +
Limestone rocks in shaded forests  +
Shaded limestone boulders  +
Cliffs, sinkholes, on limestone or other basic rocks  +
Shaded, usually moss-covered boulders and ledges, usually on limestone or other basic rocks, but occasionally on sandstone or other acidic rocks, rarely on fallen tree trunks  +
Limestone (or calcareous shale) cliffs and boulders, rarely invading masonry  +
On calcareous rocks in sinkholes, at cave entrances, and on cool, moist talus, always in deep shade  +
Cliffs of various substrates  +
Rotten logs and stumps  +
Calcareous rocks such as limestone and dolomite  +
Acidic rocks such as sandstone, basalt, and granite, very rarely on calcareous rocks  +
Shady hammocks, on walls of limesinks, moist limestone rocks, rocky banks of streams  +
Limestone and other basic rocks  +
Limestone outcrops in grottoes, on cliffs, and on boulders in shaded woods  +
Moist, shaded canyon walls and at base of overhanging rocks  +
Hammocks, on limestone rock faces  +
Shaded damp limestone rocks  +
Limestone rocks  +
Open to semishaded, mesic to dry, rocky, gravelly or silty, often calcareous areas, alpine tundra, montane to alpine meadows, cold prairies, Artemisia steppes, gravelly or eroding stream banks and flats, edges of open riparian boreal forests, bluffs, talus and cliffs, sandy ridges in muskeg  +
Fields, open roadsides  +
Rich woods and shaded north-facing road banks, ditches and seeps  +
Open areas, disturbed habitats.  +
Open sandy sites, less commonly in loam or clay, oak and oak-hickory woodlands, roadsides, pastures, grassland, also occasionally (Ark., Okla.) on rocky ridges, limestone outcrops, gravelly stream bottoms  +
Rocky (limestone) banks and ridges, alluvial fields, stream banks and terraces, open juniper woods, glades, roadsides  +
Disturbed sites in sandy or rocky soil, mesas, canyons, pine flats, roadsides, ditches  +
Rocky slopes and cliffs, favoring granite, quartzite, and other noncalcareous substrates, occasionally found on limestone  +
Rocky calcareous slopes and cliffs, mostly on limestone  +
Rocky slopes and cliffs, favoring limestone and other calcareous substrates  +
Rocky hillsides and cliffs, usually on limestone or other calcareous substrates  +
Rocky slopes and cliffs, occurring on calcareous and noncalcareous substrates  +
Rocky slopes and cliffs, occurring on calcareous and noncalcareous substrates  +
Rocky hillsides and cliffs, occurring on calcareous and noncalcareous substrates  +
Grasslands, shrublands, Tamaulipan thorn scrub, gravelly slopes and deep soil of flats  +
Desert scrub, arroyos or flats  +
Wet talus slopes, rocky hillsides, alpine meadows  +
Moist woods, swamps, thickets  +
Moist woods, thickets, swamps  +
Moist woods, meadows, streambanks  +
Moist woods, swamps, streambanks  +
Open grassy slopes, grassy glades in woodlands, chaparral, sandy and gravelly flats, flood plains, rock outcrops, cliffs and ledges, on limestone, serpentine, sandstone, granitic and basaltic substrates  +
Open grassy slopes and flats, friable clay, flood plains, adobe and heavy gumbo clay, gypsum clay slopes  +
Dry desert slopes, valleys, and washes  +
Soil banks along roads, trails, often on hummocks in clearings in woodlands, open or semishaded conditions  +
Exposed soil banks along roads and trails in woods  +
Soil, humus, mostly shaded habitats, often wet banks along streams or sometimes at margins of fens and swamps  +
Sandy soil along streams, roadside ditches in shaded habitats, sometimes at margins of swamps and marshes, rarely on rotting logs in woods  +
Moist soil, ravines, ditches, stream banks in mixed forest, low wet woods and bottomland (swamp forest)  +
Banks or stumps in woods, roots of fallen trees, ravines in crevices of rock outcrops  +
Soil, open and shaded habitats, bare roadside banks, overturned tree roots  +
Clay or sandy soil, especially in exposed habitats, beside streams, in roadside ditches, along trails and clearings in woodlands  +
Soil, dry weedy habitats, especially roadside ditches  +
Alkaline soils, used for windbreaks, roadside cover and ornamentals, mainly occurring along the drainages of the Gila and Rio Grande rivers  +
Saline, often fine-textured soils  +
Sea beaches  +
Dry or saline substrates  +
Dry or moist saline, silt or clay substrates mainly in valley bottoms  +
Saline valley bottoms, with shrubby saltbush, creosote bush, mesquite, and annual weedy grasses and forbs  +
Dry or saline substrates  +
Saline, fine-textured substrates derived mainly from Mancos Shale and Morrison formations and clay or silty alluvium, growing in salt desert shrub and floodplain communities  +
Sea bluffs, sandy coasts, crevices in sea cliffs, coastal strands, edges of coastal salt marsh, coastal sage scrub  +
Sandy or gravelly, commonly non-saline but in other situations obviously saline, sites in Joshua tree, blackbrush, greasewood, salt desert shrub, sagebrush, mountain brush, and pinyon-juniper communities  +
Active sand dunes  +
Saline flats, bajadas, alluvial fans  +
Saline desert flats, alluvial fans  +
Gravelly to fine-textured soils in greasewood, mat-atriplex, other salt desert shrub, sagebrush, pinyon-juniper, and ponderosa pine communities  +
Hard trampled, somewhat saline or alkaline soils  +
Roadsides, fields, in alkaline grasslands  +
Alkaline sink scrub, growing with Atriplex polycarpa and other salt desert shrubs and forbs  +
Alkaline flats, dry lake beds, with Suaeda, Atriplex spp., and other salt-tolerant species  +
Dried rain pools and flats, alkaline soils  +
Saline, usually fine-textured substrates derived from Mancos Shale, Tropic Shale, Morrison, Duchesne River, and other similar formations in mat-atriplex and Castle Valley saltbush communities  +
Somewhat alkaline or clay low places, valley grasslands, coastal sage scrub, coastal slopes  +
Mixed saltbush-greasewood, rabbitbrush, warm desert shrub, and salt grass communities in saline substrates  +
Sea beaches, other saline habitats  +
Saline creosote bush scrub, deserts  +
Alkaline flats, valley grasslands, deserts  +
Clay or alkaline soils, open site, shrublands  +
Saline, often moist, fine-textured substrates  +
Greasewood and saltbush communities in valley bottoms and playas  +
Saline, fine-textured substrates on Mancos Shale, and other formations of similar texture and salinity, in greasewood and mat-atriplex communities  +
Sagebrush, shadscale, and greasewood communities in fine-textured saline substrates  +
Greasewood and sagebrush-saltbush communities, mainly on fine-textured saline substrates  +
Greasewood, shadscale,alkali sacaton, kochia, saltbush, saltgrass, and sedge-rush communities, on fine-textured saline substrates  +
Mat-atriplex and Castle Valley saltbush communities on Mancos Shale Formation  +
Shadscale, rabbitbrush, ephedra, eriogonum, blackbrush, and mixed shrub-grass communities on fine-textured substrates, talus slopes of canyons of the San Juan and Colorado Rivers  +
Sandstone or limestone rimrock  +
Salt marshes, with Spartina patens  +
Sandy beaches, often covered with wrack of fucoids and Chondrus  +
Sandy sea beaches, exposed cobble, ledges, boulders  +
Coastal salt marsh, with Zostera, Elymus, and other strand and beach plants, from below high-tide level  +
Seashores, strands, salt marshes  +
Saltbush, mat-atriplex, seepweed, greasewood, rabbitbrush, and tamarix communities on saline, often salt encrusted and semibarren substrates derived from Mancos Shale, Tropic Shale, Entrada, and other fine-textured formations  +
Riparian and palustrine (less commonly ruderal) habitats  +
Cultivated or weedy  +
Roadsides, canal and stream banks, lake shores, disturbed sites and gardens  +
Warm desert shrub, on dry saline alluvial fans and hills  +
Alkali sink scrub or alkaline grasslands  +
In silty or clay loam soils  +
Sand, cobble on more or less protected beaches, on Zostera and Fucus wrack  +
Saline to essentially non-saline drainages, stream and canal banks, roadsides, warm desert shrub, saltbush, and riparian communities  +
Sea beaches, along coasts, at higher elevation inland  +
Sparingly escaped from cultivation  +
Saline deserts, with shadscale, Canotia, Yucca, Opuntia, Rhus, and Eriogonum  +
Sea beaches and other saline habitats, old ports and ballast dumps  +
Saline soils, coastal areas, often along roadsides, other disturbed areas  +
Sandy seashores, salt marshes  +
Coastal sites  +
Sandy coastal bluffs, disturbed sites such as roadsides  +
Fine-textured substrates, with salt desert shrub and lower pinyon-juniper communities  +
Mainly on sea bluffs  +
Alkaline grasslands, often on clay soils  +
Sandy saline substrates  +
Saline substrates  +
Saline or alkaline depressions or vernal pools  +
Saline depressions, often within or later growing in depressions of vernal pools  +
Saline, fine-textured soils  +
Widespread ruderal weed of nonsaline substrates such as fields, gardens, and roadsides  +
Sandy seashores, coastal salt marshes  +
Valley bottoms, silty or clay, less commonly, sandy alluvium with greasewood  +
Salt-desert shrub community  +
Warm desert shrub communities (creosote bush, ambrosia, shadscale, mesquite, saltgrass, etc.), mainly in fine-textured saline substrates  +
Tununk and Blue Gate members Mancos Shale Formation and on Morrison Formation, and likely on other fine-textured saline substrates, with mat-atriplex, greasewood, rabbitbrush, and shadscale communities  +
Saline, usually fine-textured clay or silty substrates, in greasewood, rabbitbrush, shadscale, seepweed, mat-atriplex, juniper-pinyon, and blackbrush communities  +
Sea beaches, salt marshes or other saline habitats  +
Saline substrates in valley bottoms, playas, and along drainages with greasewood, rabbitbrush, shadscale, and sagebrush  +
Disturbed sites, often in riparian habitats or in barnyards or on animal bed grounds, along roadsides and irrigation canals, with juniper, sagebrush, rabbitbrush, pinyon-juniper, Salsola, Chrysothamnus, Atriplex spp., and other weedy species  +
Fine-textured, saline (frequently semibarren) substrates of the Chinle and Entrada formations, with Atriplex confertifolia, Phacelia crenulata, and Eriogonum inflatum  +
Salt desert shrub communities, on fine-textured saline substrates of Morrison and Mancos Shale formations  +
Mat-atriplex, shadscale, greasewood, and pinyon-juniper communities, on fine-textured saline substrates (often semibarren) of the Bridger, Duchesne River, Mancos Shale, Dakota, Morrison, Entrada, and Chinle formations, and on fine-textured alluvium  +
Saline waste places, along roads and sidewalks, in marshes, in various plant communities  +
Bluffs, alkaline sinks and drainages  +
Alkaline valleys, marshy areas, valley grasslands, coastal sage scrub, sometimes ruderal weed  +
Xeric saline substrates, with mixed salt desert shrubs  +
Disturbed places, with other ruderal weeds  +
Alkaline or saline, typically fine-textured substrates, often on shale or clay barrens, sometimes with other Atriplex spp., sagebrush, and grasses  +
Atlantic and Gulf coasts, ballast and waste grounds  +
Mesquite, creosote bush, greasewood, rabbitbrush, shadscale, saltgrass, saltbush, and blackbrush communities, mainly in saline substrates  +
Saline saltgrass-greasewood-rabbitbrush communities, and other pans or palustrine or lacustrine habitats  +
Alkaline plains, edges of alkali sink  +
Coastal and insular bluffs, beaches, strands, salt marshes, sage scrub, with saltgrass and other salt-tolerant species  +
Plants of saline bottoms, often in margins of marshy areas with salt grass, greasewood, and seepweed  +
Saline areas growing with shadscale, seepweed, Russian thistle, fine-textured substrates  +
In alkaline or saline substrates, often along roadsides, in old fields and vacant lots  +
Rock crevices  +
Thickets, brushy hillsides, near botanical gardens, suburban woodlands.  +
Arctic tundra meadows, hummocks, polygon edges, organic or mineral soil, calcareous sites, deep canyons  +
Organic soil, rotting logs, mineral soil over rock  +
Wet habitats, fens, marshes, swamps, peat, organic soil, moist to wet mineral soil, rock  +
Arctic and alpine tundra meadows, heaths, fellfields, mineral soil, rock, near tree line under spruce, cirque headwalls, deep shaded canyons  +
Oak or oak-pine woods, roadsides.  +
Maple, pine, and oak woodlands, roadsides.  +
Rocky wooded slopes, mixed hardwoods.  +
Limestone substrates, edges of lakes or streams.  +
Sandy soils, oak-pine scrubs.  +
Roadsides, oak woods, pine barrens, clearings, dry, sandy soils.  +
Oak and pine woods and slopes.  +
Cliffs, gorges, rocky slopes  +
Ledges, cliffs, rocky slopes  +
Waste places  +
Rocky slopes, gravelly or sandy washes, dry canyons  +
Marl over limestone, pinelands, sandy scrub, rocky flats, waste places  +
On limestone and granite soil, steep rocky slopes, canyons, sandy washes  +
Rocky slopes, canyon bottoms, desert grasslands  +
Subtropical thorn woodlands or tall shrublands, calcareous or fine sandy loam to heavy clay alluvial soil  +
Dry limestone, igneous rocky slopes  +
Edges of thickets  +
Stagnant or slow-moving water in ponds, lakes, marshess, swamps, and streams.  +
Stagnant and slow-moving waters.  +
Stagnant or slow-moving waters.  +
B
Coastal salt marshes, hammocks, dune hollows, stream banks  +
Dry rocky ground in coniferous forests  +
Canyons, dry washes, sandy deserts, mesas  +
Hammocks and dune hollows, mangroves  +
Moist salt marshes, coastal strands, stream edges, hillsides, railroads  +
Hammocks, moist woods, pine woods, swamps, swales, stream banks, ditches of inner dunes  +
Moist salt marshes, coastal strands, stream edges, hillsides, railroads  +
Open sandy places, wet fields, marshes, beaches, disturbed sites, roadsides, old fields  +
Dry rocky hillsides, open ground, calcareous gravels  +
Grassy openings, chaparral  +
Disturbed habitats, old fields, pastures, roadsides, streambeds  +
Oak woodlands, coniferous forest openings, roadsides, coastal bluffs  +
Exposed, sandy coastal bluffs and beaches  +