Alnus incana subsp. rugosa
Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 291: 8. 1949
Phenology: Flowering early spring.
Habitat: Stream banks, lake shores, bogs, swamps, margins of wet fields, swales, and roadsides, often forming dense thickets
Elevation: 0–800 m
St. Pierre and Miquelon, Man., N.B., Nfld., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Conn., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Pa., R.I., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.
Alnus incana subsp. rugosa is an important shoreline and meadow colonizer in boreal and north temperate areas of the Canadian Shield, and a weedy successional species in damp areas along roadsides throughout its range. It overlaps in range and intergrades with A. incana subsp. tenuifolia to the west (in Saskatchewan and Manitoba) and with A. serrulata to the south. It is only slightly differentiated from the more treelike European A. incana subsp. incana.