Crocanthemum bicknellii

(Fernald) Janchen in H. G. A. Engler et al.

in H. G. A. Engler et al., Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 21: 307. 1925

Common names: Hoary or plains frostweed
EndemicIllustrated
Basionyms: Helianthemum bicknellii Fernald Rhodora 21: 36. 1919
Synonyms: H. canadense var. walkerae W. H. Evans
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 6. Treatment on page 402. Mentioned on page 401, 407.
Herbs. Stems erect, clustered on vertical caudex, (12–)20–50(–67) cm, simple or branched, stellate-pubescent to stellate-tomentose. Leaves cauline; petiole 1–4 mm; blade narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, (10–)18–32(–40) × 4–7(–10) mm, surfaces stellate-tomentose abaxially, stellate-pubescent adaxially, without simple hairs, lateral veins raised abaxially. Inflorescences terminal, cymes; chasmogamous flowers 6–10(–18) per cyme; cleistogamous in glomerules, 1–10 flowers per glomerule, on lateral leafy branches 2.5–6 cm, flowering 1–3 months later than chasmogamous. Pedicels (1.5–)3–8(–12) mm; bracts 3–7 × 0.5–1 mm. Chasmogamous flowers: outer sepals linear, 3.5–4.5(–8) × 0.4–1 mm, inner sepals ovate-elliptic, 5–8 × 2.4–4 mm, apex acute; petals obovate, 8–12 × 5–10 mm; capsules 3–5.5 × 2.5–4.5 mm, glabrous. Cleistogamous flowers: outer sepals linear, 0.5–1.5 × 0.3 mm, inner sepals ovate-elliptic, 1.7–2.8 × 1.5–2.3 mm, apex acute capsules 1.5–2.2 × 1.2–2.2 mm, glabrous.

Phenology: Flowering Jun–Jul.
Habitat: Sandy or rocky barrens, glades, sandhills, prairies, fields, pine-oak woodlands, oak-hickory woodlands, montane outcrops and balds
Elevation: 0–1500 m

Distribution

V6 760-distribution-map.jpg

Man., Ont., Ark., Colo., Conn., Del., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.

Discussion

The dense, often crowded, cleistogamous flowers on branches of Crocanthemum bicknellii late in the season

contrast strongly with the relatively few, terminal, petaliferous flowers early in the season. Its closest relative is 12. C. propinquum; see that treatment for identification aids. The names C. majus (Linnaeus) Britton and Helianthemum majus (Linnaeus) Bicknell have been misapplied to C. bicknellii. They were based on Lechea major Linnaeus, which is a synonym of C. canadense, based on types.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

AuthorBruce A. Sorrie +
Authority(Fernald) Janchen in H. G. A. Engler et al. +
BasionymsHelianthemum bicknellii +
Common nameHoary or plains frostweed +
DistributionMan. +, Ont. +, Ark. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, Wis. + and Wyo. +
Elevation0–1500 m +
HabitatSandy or rocky barrens, glades, sandhills, prairies, fields, pine-oak woodlands, oak-hickory woodlands, montane outcrops and balds +
IllustrationPresent +
Illustration copyrightFlora of North America Association +
IllustratorJohn Myers +
PhenologyFlowering Jun–Jul. +
Publication titlein H. G. A. Engler et al., Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. +
Publication year1925 +
ReferenceNone +
Source xmlhttps://jpend@bitbucket.org/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation.git/src/f50eec43f223ca0e34566be0b046453a0960e173/coarse grained fna xml/V6/V6 760.xml +
Special statusEndemic + and Illustrated +
SynonymsH. canadense var. walkerae +
Taxon familyCistaceae +
Taxon nameCrocanthemum bicknellii +
Taxon parentCrocanthemum +
Taxon rankspecies +
VolumeVolume 6 +