Halesia carolina

Linnaeus

Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1044, 1369. 1759 ,

Common names: Carolina silverbell opossum-wood shittim-wood
Synonyms: Halesia carolina var. monticola RehderHalesia monticola MichauxHalesia monticola var. vestita SargentHalesia parviflora unknownHalesia tetraptera unknownHalesia tetraptera var. monticola (Rehder) Reveal & Seldin
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 8. Treatment on page 346.
Click plate for higher resolution version.
Shrubs or trees to 24 m. Leaves: petiole 11–29 mm; blade whitish green or grayish green abaxially, ovate-oblong, elliptic, or obovate to oblanceolate, 8.7–22.5 × 3.8–11.4 cm, length 1.5–3.3 times width, margins 25–80-toothed, abaxial surface not shiny, quaternary veins not raised abaxially. Inflorescences appearing fasciculate, 2–6-flowered, sometimes solitary flowers, ebracteolate. Flowers: sepals 2–5 × 1.5–3 mm; corolla open prior to anthesis, 10–29 mm, glabrous, tube 7–26 mm, lobes 3–7 × 5–12 mm; stamens 12–16, 9–17 mm; filaments adnate to corolla 2–3 mm, free portion connate 1–3 mm, distinct portion 5–14 mm, glabrous abaxially, hairy adaxially; anthers 2.5–4 mm; style glabrous. Fruits ± equally 4-winged, ellipsoid to clavate, 2.4–5 × 0.7–2.6 cm. 2n = 24.

Phenology: Flowering Mar–May; fruiting Jun–Nov.
Habitat: Moist, often slightly acidic and sandy soils, wooded floodplains, stream banks, borders of swamps, hammocks, roadsides
Elevation: 0-1600 m

Distribution

V8 681-distribution-map.gif

Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., La., Mich., Miss., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Va., W.Va.

Discussion

Two poorly defined taxa have been segregated from Halesia carolina at the species level or below. The mountain entity, H. monticola, is a tree to 20 meters or more with relatively large flowers, deeply included stamens, and relatively large fruits. The more often recognized coastal-plain entity H. parviflora is a shrub with smaller flowers, exserted stamens, and clavate fruits. P. W. Fritsch and S. A. Lucas (2000) have demonstrated that the characters used to delimit segregates vary either irregularly or more or less continuously with latitude.

Halesia carolina is not native in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island but has been locally naturalized in these states.

Lower Taxa

No lower taxa listed.

Facts about "Halesia carolina"
AuthorPeter W. Fritsch +
AuthorityLinnaeus +
Common nameCarolina silverbell +, opossum-wood + and shittim-wood +
DistributionAla. +, Ark. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Ky. +, La. +, Mich. +, Miss. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Va. + and W.Va. +
Elevation0-1600 m +
HabitatMoist, often slightly acidic and sandy soils, wooded floodplains, stream banks, borders of swamps, hammocks, roadsides +
IllustratorBarbara Alongi +
PhenologyFlowering Mar–May + and fruiting Jun–Nov. +
Publication titleSyst. Nat. ed. +
Referencefritsch2000a +, giersbach1932a + and reveal1976b +
Source xmlhttps://jpend@bitbucket.org/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation.git/src/9216fc802291cd3df363fd52122300479582ede7/coarse grained fna xml/V8/V8 681.xml +
SynonymsHalesia carolina var. monticola +, Halesia monticola +, Halesia monticola var. vestita +, Halesia parviflora +, Halesia tetraptera + and Halesia tetraptera var. monticola +
Taxon familyStyracaceae +
Taxon nameHalesia carolina +
Taxon parentHalesia +
Taxon rankspecies +
VolumeVolume 8 +