Juncus subg. Graminifolii


Abhandlungen herausgegeben vom naturwissenschaftlichen Vereine zu Bremen 4: 407, 441. 1875.

Synonyms: Juncus sect. Graminifolii Engelmann
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 22.

Herbs, annual or perennial, perennials rhizomatous. Stems terete. Leaves basal or cauline; blade flat or terete and channeled, not septate. Inflorescences terminal panicles or racemes of 2–many heads or single terminal head, sympodial; bracteoles absent below perianth. Flowers solitary or in heads. Capsules 1-locular or usually 3-locular. Seeds usually not tailed.


North America and south temperate areas of the world.


The relationships of both the perennial and annual species in this subgenus are poorly understood as evidenced by the variety of opinions expressed in numerous floras. The need for a multidisciplinary investigation of this subgenus, including morphometric and chromosomal evaluations, became painfully obviously evident during the preparation of this manuscript.

Species ca. 25 (20 in the flora).


1 Plants annual. > 2
1 Plants perennial. > 11
2 Proximal bracts foliose, clearly surpassing inflorescence; outer tepals acute, 2 times as long as delicate obtuse inner tepals Juncus capitatus
2 All bracts commonly inconspicuous, membranous; inner and outer tepals similar in size and shape. > 3
3 Style and anthers more than 1 mm; culms to 13(–17) cm. > 4
3 Style and anthers less than 0.5(–0.8) mm; culms rarely to 6.5 cm. > 5
4 Culms capillary, 0.1–0.4 mm diam.; capsules usually shorter than perianth Juncus triformis
4 Culms stouter, (0.2–)0.4–0.8 mm diam.; capsules usually nearly equal to tepals Juncus leiospermus
5 Flowers mostly several per culm; bracts acute to acuminate. > 6
5 Flowers uniformly solitary; bracts acute to truncate or absent. > 9
6 Capsules usually shorter than perianth, greenish or tan Juncus capillaris
6 Capsules usually nearly equal to or longer than perianth, brownish. > 7
7 Flowers 2-merous; capsules longer than tepals Juncus tiehmii
7 Flowers usually 3-merous; capsules nearly equal to perianth. > 8
8 Flowers several per culm; capsules and tepals commonly turning dark reddish; seeds 0.4–0.5 mm Juncus kelloggii
8 Flowers solitary; capsules and tepals commonly remaining pale yellow-green until seeds ripen; seeds 0.3–0.4 mm Juncus luciensis
9 Tepals turning inward to enwrap shorter capsule at maturity, mostly less than 2.3 mm; flowers usually 3-merous; culms 0.1–0.2 mm diam. Juncus bryoides
9 Tepals erect to recurved at maturity, nearly equal to or shorter than capsule; flowers 2- or 3-trimerous; culms usually more than 0.2 mm diam. > 10
10 Flowers 3-merous; bracts solitary, truncate, completely sheathing culm Juncus uncialis
10 Flowers 2-merous; bracts 0–2, rounded to ovate, not sheathing culm Juncus hemiendytus
11 Culms arcuate-stoloniferous and creeping or floating Juncus repens
11 Culms erect, never rooting at nodes. > 12
12 Seeds not tailed. > 12
12 Seeds tailed. > 13
13 Auricles absent or essentially so; anthers 1–1.5 mm Juncus regelii
13 Auricles 1–3 mm, rounded to acutish; anthers 1.8–2.6 mm Juncus howellii
14 Culms borne in tufts, rhizomes poorly developed. > 15
14 Culms borne singly or in small groups along creeping rhizome. > 17
15 Stamens 6 Juncus macrophyllus
15 Stamens 3. > 16
16 Tepals staw-colored; capsules yellowish to light brown; glomerules mostly 1–5(–10) per culm Juncus filipendulus
16 Tepals dark brown; capsules brown; glomerules more than 10 per culm Juncus marginatus
17 Stamens 3 Juncus marginatus
17 Stamens 6. > 18
18 Auricles absent or rudimentary, less than 1 mm. > 19
18 Auricles rounded or acute, 1–3 mm. > 21
19 Anthers 1.6–2.4 mm Juncus orthophyllus
19 Anthers 0.8–1.5 mm. > 20
20 Tepals 3–4 mm Juncus covillei
20 Tepals 4.5–6 mm Juncus falcatus
21 Tepals 3–4 mm Juncus covillei
21 Tepals 5–6 mm. > 22
22 Tepals with broad clear margins Juncus longistylis
22 Tepals without clear margins Juncus orthophyllus