Listera convallarioides

(Swartz) Nuttall ex Elliott

Sketch Bot. S. Carolina 2: 494. 1823

Common names: Broad-leaved twayblade
Basionyms: Epipactis convallarioides Swartz Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 21: 232. 1800
Synonyms: Bifolium convallarioides (Swartz) Nieuwland Diphryllum convallarioides (Swartz) Kuntze Listera eschscholziana Chamisso Ophrys convallarioides (Swartz) W. Wight
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 26. Treatment on page 590. Mentioned on page 587, 588, 589, 591.
Plants 5–37 cm, somewhat stoloniferous. Stems green, succulent, glabrous. Leaves: blade green, broadly ovate to elliptic, oval or suborbiculate, 2–7 × 1.5–5.8 cm, apex obtuse to rarely acute or apiculate. Inflorescences 5–20-flowered, lax, 20–120 mm; floral bracts semitranslucent, rhombic-ovate to lanceolate, 3–5 × 1–2.5 mm, apex acute to acuminate; peduncle and rachis densely whitish glandular-pubescent. Flowers yellowish green, sometimes faintly tinged with purple; pedicels slender, 2.5–7 mm, glandular-pubescent; ovary glandular-pubescent, becoming glabrate as it matures; sepals and petals reflexed away from column and lip; dorsal sepal ovate-lanceolate to elliptic, 4.5–5 × 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse to acute; lateral sepals lanceolate, falcate, 4.5–5.5 × 1.5–1.8 mm, apex acute to obtuse; petals linear, falcate, 4–5 × 0.8–1 mm; lip cuneate, apex dilated and shallowly notched, lateral lobes rounded, with small tooth in sinus, tapering to short, slender claw, with indistinct triangular tooth on either side of base above claw, 8–13 × 5–7 mm, margins minutely bristly-ciliate; column arcuate, slender, 2.5–3.5(–4) × 1 mm, apex slightly expanded. Capsules ellipsoid, 8 × 5 mm, essentially glabrous. 2n = 36.

Phenology: Flowering Jun–Sep.
Habitat: Rich humus in open woods to boggy meadows, soil circumneutral or at most only mildly acid, prefers cool soil, widespread across northern part of continent, extending southward only at high elevations
Elevation: 100–2600 m

Distribution

V26 1204-distribution-map.jpg

St. Pierre and Miquelon, Alta., B.C., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Alaska (including Aleutian Islands), Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Maine, Mich., Minn., Mont., Nev., N.H., N.Y., Oreg., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Wash., Wis., Wyo.

Discussion

Listera convallarioides has a relatively large flower compared to most of the other listeras. It crosses with L. auriculata to produce a natural hybrid L. ×veltmanii Case, which is discussed under 3. L. auriculata.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

AuthorLawrence K. Magrath + and Ronald A. Coleman +
Authority(Swartz) Nuttall ex Elliott +
BasionymsEpipactis convallarioides +
Common nameBroad-leaved twayblade +
DistributionSt. Pierre and Miquelon +, Alta. +, B.C. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Alaska (including Aleutian Islands) +, Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Maine +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.Y. +, Oreg. +, S.Dak. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Wash. +, Wis. + and Wyo. +
Elevation100–2600 m +
HabitatRich humus in open woods to boggy meadows, soil circumneutral or at most only mildly acid, prefers cool soil, widespread across northern part of continent, extending southward only at high elevations +
IllustrationPresent +
Illustration copyrightFlora of North America Association +
IllustratorBarbara Alongi +
PhenologyFlowering Jun–Sep. +
Publication titleSketch Bot. S. Carolina +
Publication year1823 +
ReferenceNone +
Source xmlhttps://jpend@bitbucket.org/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation.git/src/f50eec43f223ca0e34566be0b046453a0960e173/coarse grained fna xml/V26/V26 1204.xml +
SynonymsBifolium convallarioides +, Diphryllum convallarioides +, Listera eschscholziana + and Ophrys convallarioides +
Taxon familyOrchidaceae +
Taxon nameListera convallarioides +
Taxon parentListera +
Taxon rankspecies +
VolumeVolume 26 +