Vaccaria hispanica

(Miller) Rauschert
Feddes Repert. 73: 52. 1966.
Common names: Cowherb cowcockle saponaire des vaches
Basionym: Saponaria hispanica Miller Gard. Dict. ed. 8, Saponaria no. 4 (in errata). 1768
Synonyms: Saponaria vaccaria Linnaeus Vaccaria pyramidata Medikus Vaccaria segetalis (Necker) Garcke ex Ascherson Vaccaria vaccaria (Linnaeus) Britton Vaccaria vulgaris Host
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 5. Treatment on page 156.

Plants glabrous, glaucous. Stems 20–100 cm. Leaf blades 2–10 cm, base cuneate to cordate. Cymes open, 16–50(–100)-flowered. Pedicels (5–)10–30(–55) mm. Flowers: calyx 9–17 mm, with 5 prominent, usually green, winged angles or ridges, each ridge with strong, cordlike marginal vein; petals with claw 8–14 mm, blade 3–8 mm. Capsules included in calyx tube. Seeds 2–2.5 mm wide. 2n = 30.


Phenology: Flowering spring–summer.
Habitat: Fields, waste places
Elevation: 0-2400 m

Distribution

V5 318-distribution-map.gif

Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon, Ala., Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo., Eurasia, widely naturalized elsewhere.

Discussion

If the genus Vaccaria is treated as monotypic, V. hispanica then includes four subspecies, and our material is subsp. hispanica. Vaccaria hispanica still occasionally is included in Saponaria (e.g., F. Swink and G. S. Wilhelm 1994). Once a common weed of grain fields (like Agrostemma githago), it is now increasingly rare or has been extirpated in many localities; the distribution stated above may be the historical maximum, rather than current, North American distribution. The saponin-containing seeds of this species are poisonous upon ingestion.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Vaccaria hispanica"
John W. Thieret +  and Richard K. Rabeler +
(Miller) Rauschert +
Saponaria hispanica +
Cowherb +, cowcockle +  and saponaire des vaches +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Ala. +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Fla. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +, Eurasia +  and widely naturalized elsewhere. +
0-2400 m +
Fields, waste places +
Flowering spring–summer. +
Feddes Repert. +
Saponaria vaccaria +, Vaccaria pyramidata +, Vaccaria segetalis +, Vaccaria vaccaria +  and Vaccaria vulgaris +
Vaccaria hispanica +
Vaccaria +
species +